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( ^i c^cc / f/ ‘^rf :fu , .;c-^/<







Third Edition

London : SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, & Co., Ld.
Tokyo: THE SHUYEISHA, Ichigaya.

Yokohama, Shanghai, Hongkong, Singapore.


AU rights reserved]






This edition, though revised with great care,
practically reproduces its forerunners of 1888 and
1889. A small quantity of new matter added to the
** Theoretical Part,” or Grammar proper, for complete-
ness’ sake, has been absorbed into the old paragraphs
without disturbing their order. Thus, references to
the Colloquial Hattdhook in a manual of Japanese
writing which the author has in view, will be equally
intelligible to students, whichever edition they may
happen to possess. In the ** Practical Part,” or
Reader, one or two pieces that had lost their interest
have been dropped, and a new piece — an extract from
the debates in the Imperial Diet — has been substituted.

Thanks are due to many correspondents — some
of them personally unknown to the author — for correc-
tions and suggestions. Similar criticism will always
be gratefully received in the future ; for in the case of a
language so exceptionally difficult as Japanese, the
utmost that any grammarian, however painstaking, can
hope to produce necessarily falls far short of the ideal,
and here, if anywhere, the saying holds good that in
multitude of counsellors there is safety.


Such students as desire to pass beyond modern
colloquial practice into the field of philological research
are recommended to peruse Mr, Aston’s Grammar of
the Japanese Written Language^ — an admirably lucid
work embodying all the best results obtained by the
native school of grammarians, — and the present writer’s
Essay in Aid of a Grammar and Dictionary of the
Luchuan Language (** Trans. Asiat. Soc. of Japan,”
Vol. XXIII. SuppL), wherein an attempt has been
made to attack some of the problems of Japanese
philology from the outside.

Tdkyd, December y i8g*j.



.OR .



I, Method of using this Handbook.—^ 2, Necessity for much
Teaming by Heart. — ^ 3, Relationship of Japanese to Other
Languages. — ^f 4, Differences lietween Ancient and Modern Japa-
nese, Introduction of Chinese. — ^ 5, Pronunciation of Chinese. — ^
6. Preference for Chinese Words. — ^ 7, Japanese Writing, the Kana
Syllabaries. — ^f 8, Colloquial Literature. — 9, Parts of Speech.
— 10, Errors into which European Speakers are Apt to
Fall Page i— ii.



II, letters. — 12—13, Vowels, Short and Long. — ^ 14 — 19, Vowel
Peculiarities, Quiescent Vowels. ^^f 20 — 22, Diphthongs. — 23 —
25, Consonants, Simple and Double. — f 26, Final Letters. — 27,
Accent.–^ 28 — 32, I^etter-Changes, the Nigori, Reduplication of
C’onsonants. — 33, Change oi e o a in certain Compounds. —
34, Japanese Inability to Pronounce certain Combinations of Letters,
Changes hence Resulting in Imported European Words. — ^ 35,
Euphonic Contractions Pa e 12 — 26




T 36—44, Nnmber and Gender.— f 45 — 49, Compound Nouns,
Synthesis of Contradictories, Diflference between Native and
Cliinese Compounds, Hyphens.— f 50, Word -building, Proper
Names. — f 51, Honorifics in Word-building. — ^ 52, Nouns in /^
and mi. — T 53 — 54, Koto i^nd Mono,^ 55, Names of Shops. — ^ 56,
Names of Trees, Rivers, Islands, and Mountains. — f 57, Aida,
Hazu, Toki, — ^ 58, Tokoro, Dokoro, — ^ 59, Verbs used as Nouns.
— f 60—63, Nouns used as Adjectives.— f 64, Nouns used as
Adverbs Page 27 — ^45.



f 65—71, Personal Pronouns.— f 72, Reflective Pronouns.- T 73—
79, Demonstrative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns and
Adverbs (^ 74, Table of Pronouns and Adverbs).— f 80—86,
Relative Pronouns, 7<?i^r^ »<7 Page 46— 61.



f 87, Postpositions Proper (including f 88—90, Z’^.— f 91—94,
Ga. — f 95 — 98, Ka,— 99 — 100, Kara.—^ loi, Made.—% 102,
iWi?.— If 103, Motte.—^ 104— 109, M’.— T no— 114, No. — f 1 15,
Dano.-^^ 116, Shi,—^ I17— I2i, To, ToU.—% 122—125, Wa.—^
126 — 128, Diflference Mween IVa and Ga, — ^ 129—132, ff^.— f
U3» ^^.— t ’34, ^’f.— f 135, Yori),—^ 136—140, Postpositions
Combined, No ni, Woba, To wa. — ^ 141 — 145, Quasi-Postposi-
tions Page 62— too.


U 146, Cardinal Numbers (including f 147— 151, Native Numerals.—
^ 152, Chinese Numerals.— If 153, Letter-Changes of Chinese


Numerals.— f 154—156, Sundry Pecaliarities of Namerals).—
f 157—160, Chinese Auxiliary Numerals.— f 161, Native
Auxiliary Numerals. — f 162, Counting of Human Beings.—
f 163—165, Interrogative Numeral Words.— f 166, Ordinal and
Fractional Numbers.— f 167—172, Counting of Time,—!” 173—
174, Miscellaneous Numeral Locutions Page ioi— 119.



1[ 175—185, Primary Inflections in ki, shi^ ku (1, ^, fi). Adjective
Stems, Table of Primary Inflections. — f 186 — 187, Secondary or
Tense and Mood Inflections, Tables of ditto.— f 188, Negative Adjec-
tive A^<if.— fi89, Negative Conjugation of Ad jectives. — 190, Ex-
amples of Tense and Mood Inflections, f 191, Compound Adjec-
tives*— f 192, Beki,^^ 193, Desiderative Adjective in Tai, — f 194,
Raskiif Reduplicated Stems. — f 195, Garu and Tagaru^ Verbs
Derived from Adjectives. — ^ 196—210, Quasi-Adjectives (including
Tf 197, No, Na, Na no, and Emphatic Nan, — f 198, So «j.— f 205
—207, Verbs used as Adjectives. — 208 — 209, Common Errors of
Foreigners. — f 210, Diminutives in ko. Augmentative! in J, and
Honoriflcs tf,^tf, etc.), — 211 — 214, Comparison of Adjectives. —
^215 — 219. Miscellaneous Items Page 120— 148.



220, Fundamental Differences between Japanese and European
Verbs.— f 221 — 222, Analysis of Verbal Forms into Root, Stem,
Base, and Agglutinated Suffix. — ^ 223, Roots. — 224—225,
Bases. — 226, Verbs how Named.— f 227, Introductory Remarks
on the Paradigms,— f 228 — 230, Paradigms of the Three Regular
Conjugations. — 231 — 233, Paradigms of the Irregular Verbs
Kuru, Sum, and Mas^, — 234, Verbs for Practice.- f 235—237,
Peculiarities of First Conjugation (with Table).— f 238, Kydto
Peculiarities. — ^ 239, Rationale of Phonetic Changes in Stems
ending in x, /, or a Vowel— f 240—267, Analysis of the Formation
of the Moods and Tenses. — f 268 — 272, Irregular Verbs, viz..


Am, GozarUy Iras sham, Kudasaru, Nasam, Ossham, Iku, and
Shi num. — f 273 — 29!, Remarks on the Use of the Moods and
Tenses (including f 273—276, Present, Past, and Future. — 277,
Infinitive. — f 278 — 279, Indefinite Form and Negative Gerund. —
280—282, Gerund. — 283, Gerund of Adjectives. — 284, Emphasis-
ed Gerund. — ^ 285, Desiderative Adjective and Adjective of Pro-
bability. — 286, Form in sd.~^ 287, Conditional Mood, Old
Hypothetical Mood, Nnraba, Elliptical Idioms Corresponding to
English Would, Should, Could, etc. — 288 — 289, Concessive Mood
and Idioms. — 290, Frequentative Form. — 291, Imperative
Mood). — If 292 — 302, Auxiliary Verbs (including ^ 292, Stems
Built up by means of Auxiliaries. — 293, Am — 294, Iru and
Om. — f 295, Kuru, Illative Tenses. — 296, Mim. — f 297,
N^araba. — ^ 298, Oku. — 299, Shimati. — -^ 300, Sum, Itasu, —
^ 301, Yarn, — 302, Auxiliaries make the Sentence Lifelike
and Picturesque) Pack 149—197.


303, Passive Voice. — 304, Origin of Passive explains
Peculiarities of its Use. — 305 — 308, Curious Examples, Wo in
Passive Constructions, Am. — 309, Passive passes into Poten-
tial. — 1 310, Dekim. — ‘>^\y Kaneru, — If 312, Morau, Iladaktt. —
^313, English Passives expressed by Japanese Intransitives.— ^
314, Aversion of the Japanese Language to the Use of the Pas-
sive. — ^ 315 — 316, Intransitives in eru. — ^ 317—318, Difference
between Intransitives in em. Potentials in areru or rareru, and
Passives in areru or rareru. — 319, Second and Third Conju-
gations how Treated. — ^ 320, Examples of Intransitives. —
^ 321 — 323, Transitive and Intransitive Pairs of Verbs.— f 324,
Absence of Reflective Verbs.— T 325—333, Causative Verbs.—
^ 334 — ^340, Compound Verbs.— ^ 341—349. Equivalents of
the Verb ” to Be,” Aru, GozarUf Da^ Desu, Iru, Oru, Irassharu,
O ide nasaru, Ja, Nam, Suru.—% 350—358, Suru (If 353, Zuru,
Jiru). — If 359 — 361, Verbs Liable to be Mistaken for Eacli
Other. (^ 361, Paradigm of Iru, Ireru, and /r«).— Tf 3^2 — 365,
Verbs used as Other Parts of Speech (^f 364, Reduplication of
Present Tense) Page 198—230.




f 366, Al)sence of True Adverbs. — ^ 367, Adjective Forms in ku
used Adverbially. — 368 — 370, Nouns used as Adverbs.—
371, Phonetic Decay. — 372, Gerunds used as Adverbs. —
T 373. List of Adverbs.— T 374— 376, “Yes” and “No.”— ^[377,
Adverbial Phrases. — f 378, Onomatopoetic Adverl>s. — ^ 379 —
384, Interjections (f 382, Naruhodo,— 383, Ne— 385,
Bad Langage. — ^ 386, Baby Language. — If 387, Women’s
Language. — 388, Court Language.— If 389 — 391, Conjunc-
tions Page 231— 243.


T 392 — 393, General Considerations. — f 394, Honorifics only
Partially Replace the Pronouns of other Languages. — 395 —
396, O and Go.— 397, Sama applied to Things or Acts. —
398, Honorifics used Objectively. — 399, Saki, — 400,
Meaningless Use of Honorifics.—^ 401, Otiy Mi. — ^f 402 — ^404,
Honorific Periphrases for Verbs. — 405 — 406, Special Honorific
and Humble Verbs. — 407 — 410, Honorific Imperatives. —
If 411, ” Please” and •♦ Thank You.” — f 412— 413, Special Honorific
and Humljle Nouns, Names of Relationship. — 414, Written
Language Forms. — ^ 415, Scantiness of Self- Depreciatory
Forms. — If 416, Sir, Madam, Mr. — ^ 417, Mrs, Miss. — If ^*^»
Women’s Names.— ^ 419, Use of the Word ” Mr.” … Page 244 — 259.


If 420, The Fundamental Rule is that Qualifying Words precede
the Words they Qualify, — ^ 42’> Postpositions only an Apparent


Exception, — f 422, Correlation of Sentences. — ^ 423, Subject
of Sentence. — ^ 424, Examples of Construction. — ^ 425 — ^426,
Examples of the Correlation of Clauses by the Indefinite Form
and the Gerund. — ^ 427, General Sabjectlessness of Sentences.
—If 428, Order of the Direct and Indirect Objects of the Verb.
— ^ 429, Ellipsis, Final Verb often Omitted.— f 430, Syntax
of Postpositions. — ^ 431, Inversion. — ^ 432, Negatives mutnally
Destructive — f 433—434, Peculiarity of Japanese Negatives owing
to the Absence of Negative Pronouns, Adverbs, and Conjunctions. —
t 435—436, Quotation generally Direct, f 437, How to Avoid
Quotations within Quotations, Peculiar Pleonastic Idiom. — ^ 438,
Interrogation. — ^ 439, Passives. — ^ 440 — 441, Absence of Personifica-
tion. — ^ 442 — 444, Extreme Tendency to Synthesis as shown in the
Integration of Sentences Page 260 — 282.




f 445. Short Phases IN Constant Use Page 285—299.

f 446. Additional Useful Phrases „ 300—306.

f 447. Easy Questions and Answers „ 307 —309.

f 448. Proverbs „ 310—315.

f 449. Fragments of Conversation, including : i. The Post ; 2,
An Exhibition ; 3, A Request ; 4, Engaging a Teacher ; 5, What
Salary ? 6, Meal Hours ; 7, An Enquiry ; 8, Another Enquiry ;
9, Talking to a Child ; 10, Talking to a Father ; 11, The Telegraph ;
12, Speaking Japanese Well ; 13, No Thoroughfare ; 14, Compli-
ments on Meeting a Friend ; 15, A Message ; 16, Feeling Unwell;
17, On Board Ship ; 18, A Picnic ; 19, A Visitor ; 20, Asking the
Way; 21, Compliments on First Meeting ; 22, Taking Leave of a


Friend ; 23, Thanks for Assistance Received ; 24, New Year Con-
gratulations; 25, An Earthquake ; 26, Hiring a Jinrikisha ; 27, Letters
for the Mail ; 28, Nearing Yokohama ; 29, A Christian Church ; 30,
A Fire ; 31, The Theatre ; 32, Early to Bed ; 33, Difficulty of the
Japanese Language ; 34, Asking the Way ; 35, The Way to the
British Legation ; 36, A Toast ; 37, Keeping a Visitor Waiting ; 38,
Looking in on an Intimate Friend ; 39, Arriving at a Tea-house ; 40,
A Meeting Dispersed ; 41, Shopping at Miyanoshita … Page 316 — 343.

T 450 — 7, Anecdotes, including : ^ 450, True Economy ; ^ 451,

Thankful Kichibei ; f 452, If they Wait, their Ages will Come

Right ; If 453, An Illiterate Dog ; f 454, A Dream of Liquor ; ^

‘ 455, The Pursuit of Fashion ; f 456, Radishes ; f 457, An Eye on

the Top of the Head Page 344— 365.

T 458 — 9. Two Chapters from tho ” Botan-D6r6,” a Novel by
Encho Page 366— 403,

% 460. A Newspaper Article, entitled «*Why?” … „ 404—413.

T 461 — 2. Lectures including: f 461, A Talk al)out Investiga-
tion ; f 462, A Point of Moral-Culture Page 414—427.

f 463. Extract from a Sermon „ 428-^433.

Tf 464. A Scene in the Diet „ 434 — ^447.

f 465—473. A Word about Poetry „ 448-^52.

f 474. Anglo-Japanese Vocabulary of over 1,700 Useful
Words „ 453-473.

IT 475’ Vocabulary of all the Japanese Words occurring in this
Work Pace 474— 557.

f 476. Index of subjects „ 559—567.

^ 477, Additions and Corrections , 568— 569*






Introductory Remarks.

^ I. ‘* How can I learn to speak Japanese ?” — This question
has been so often addressed to the present writer that he
has resolved to put his answer into a permanent shape.
He is persuaded that no language was ever learnt solely
from a grammar, — least of all a language like Japanese,
whose structure and idioms are so alien from all that we
are accustomed to in Europe. The student is therefore
recommended only to glance through the Theoretical Part
at first, in order to obtain a general idea of the territory he
has to conquer. He can pick up by the way such of the
examples as strike him, committing them to memory and
seeking opportunities for using them to his servants and
his native teacher. He should then go on to the Practi-
cal Part, and attack the ** Fragments of Conversation” and
the ”Anecdotes” as soon as possible, however baffling it
may seem to be confronted with such long sentences.
After all, as Japanese consists chiefly of long sentences,
one cannot too early decide to face them. A little prac-
tice will rob them of much of their terror. Every now
and then the Theoretical Part should be consulted on


difficult points. It should be read through carefully, a
little at a time, after a diligent study of the Practical Part
and a committal of a few pages of the latter to memory
shall have caused the student to make some way in the
mastery of the language.
^ 2. The necessity for memorising cannot be too strongly
insisted upon. It is the sole means of escape from the
pernicious habit of thinking in English, translating every
sentence literally from a whispered English original, and
therefore beginning and ending by speaking English
Japanese instead of Japanese Japanese. It is not only
that the words and idioms of Japanese differ from our
English words and idioms, but that the same set of cir-
cumstances does not always draw from Japanese speakers
remarks similar to those which it would draw from
European speakers. Japanese thoughts do not run in
quite the same channels as ours. To take a very simple
instance. If an Englishman wishes to make a polite
remark to a friend about the latter’s sick father, he will
probably say, ‘ ‘ I hope your father is better to-day. ” In
French, German, Italian, etc. , the phrase would be pretty
nearly the same. . In each of these languages the same
kindly hope would be expressed. In Japanese it is different.
The phrase must run thus :

Otoiisan zva, do de gozaimasu ?

Honotirnhle’fiMther-‘Mr. as-for, how ia?

or, more politely.

Go shimpu wa^ ikaga de irasshaimasu ?

Auffttst retd-fitiher as-fm*, how deigfis-to-he ?

The idea of hoping or fearing, which to us is so familiar,
does not present itself with the same vividness and
frequency to the less anxious, less high-strung Far-Eastern


mind. The characteristic phrase here is rather the ever-
recurring fatalistic

^,^, ^ . ( ”There is nothing to

n/ w. • r . ,-/^/”!i-|be done.” “There is

The Student should endeavour to place himself from the
outset at the Japanese point of view. This he can do only
by dint of much learning by heart. The trouble thus taken
will be of infinite advantage to him, even if his ultimate aim
be the indoctrination of the Japanese with foreign ideas. It
will put him in sympathy with his hearers. It is true that,
of late, English idioms have begun to penetrate into the
Japanese language. But it is chiefly into the language of
the lecture-hall and the committee-room. The style of
familiar every-day speech is not likely ever to be much
affected by this new influence.
^ 3. It is still doubtful under what family of languages Japa-
nese, with its sister-tongue Luchuan, spoken in a little archi-
pelago to the south between Kyushu and Formosa, should
be classed. There is no relationship between these and
Aino, the speech of the hairy aborigines whom the Japanese
conquerors have gradually pushed eastwards and northwards.
In structure, though not to any appreciable extent in
vocabulary, Japanese closely resembles Korean ; and both it
and Korean may possibly be related to Mongol and to
Manchu, and may therefore claim to be included in the
Altaic group. Be this as it may, Japanese is what is gene-
rally termed an agglutinative language, that is to say, it
builds up its words and grammatical forms by means of
suffixes loosely soldered to the root or stem. It also shows
faint traces of the ‘Maw of vowel harmony” or “attraction,”
which characterises the Altaic languages. This manifests


itself in a tendency to uniformity in the vowels of
successive syllables, as oiotoshi, **the year before last,” for
ato ioshL Similarly in several of the words recently adopted
from English, such as niishin^ ”a (sewing-) machine;”
Goiio, *^ (the Christian) God ; ” bukku, **a (European)book. ”

^ 4. The earliest Japanese literature that has come down to us
dates, in its present form, from the beginning of the eighth
century after Christ. The general structure of the language
at that time was nearly the same as it is now ; but the
changes of detail have been so numerous that a page of
eighth century Japanese is unintelligible to a modern native
of Tokyo without special study. One of the chief factors in
the alteration of the language has been the gradual infiltration
of Chinese words and phrases, which naturally accompanied
the borrowing of Buddhism, Confucianism, and the various
arts and sciences of China. Chinese established itself, so
to speak, as the Latin and Greek of Japan. It retains
this position even at the present day, supplying names
for almost all the new implements, sciences, and ideas,
which are being introduced from Europe and America.
In this manner, one very curious and quite unexpected
result of the Europeanisation of Japan has been the flood-
ing of the language with Chinese terms at a rate never
known before. Thus we have :

jo-ht-sen^ lit. ‘ * steam-vapour-ship, ” ‘ * a steamer. ”

jb-ht-sha, , , * ‘ steam- vapour- vehicle, ” ‘ * a railway train. ”

min-kerty ,, ”people-authority,” ** democracy. ”

sha-shifiy ,, ”copy-truth,” “photograph.”

ron-rt-gakuj , , ” argue-reason-science, ” ‘ ‘ logic. ”

ieisii-doy . , , ” iron-road, ” “a railway. ”

ban-kohl ko- , , ” myriad-countries ‘ ‘ international

ho, public-law,” law.”


jb-yaku hai- lit. ( * ‘ treaty amend- ) , , ^ ^ . . „

set, ment,” ^^^^’^ ‘^^’^»°”-

., , … C ”set-up-law gov- ) f ”constitutional
n^./f ^« sei’jt, , , I ernment, ” [ | government. ”

yU’Sho rep’ ,, (“superior-conquer] j ” the survival of
pai^ inferior-lose,” j ( the fittest.”

5. The Japanese do not pronounce Chinese in a manner
that would be intelligible to any Chinaman. They have two
standards of pronunciation, both of which are corruptions of
the Chinese pronunciation of over a thousand years ago. One
of these is called the Go-on, the other the Kan-on, from the
names of certain ancient Chinese kingdoms. Usage decrees
that the same word shall be pronounced according to the
Go-on in some contexts, and according to the Kan-on in
others. Thus the myb of dai-myb, “a feudal noble” (lit. ”a
great name “), is the same as the jjiei of niei-butsu, * ‘ the chief
production of a locality ” (lit. ‘ ‘a name-thing, ” L ^. ” a famous
thing”). In this case myb is the Go-on, and mei the Kan-on, of
the same Chinese character ^, which in China itself is pro-
nounced ming. The practical student will do best to
learn words by rote, without troubling himself as to whether
each term, if Chinese, be in the Go-on or in the Kan-on.

6. The effect of the steady influx of Chinese words during
more than a millennium has been to discredit the native
Japanese equivalents even when they exist. A foreigner who
wishes to be considered an elegant speaker should, therefore,
gradually accustom himself to employ Chinese words ver’
freely, except when addressing uneducated persons. He
should, for instance, prefer


jin-ryokuisuru), “to endeavour,” to chikara wo tsukusu,
myb-cho^ “to-morrow morning,” to asfiita no asa.


sak-koji, ”yesterday and to-day,” to kino to hyb lo.
tai’hoku, ‘ ‘ a large tree, ” to oh’ na ki.

Wa-set] ‘ ‘ Japanese make, ” to Nihon-deku

Some thoughtful persons, both Japanese and foreign, regret
the fashionable preference for Chinese words. But the
fashion exists, and to follow it is considered a mark of
refinement ; neither is it possible, even were it desirable, for
an outsider to set up a standard of his own, different from
that acknowledged by the people themselves. The copious-
ness of the Chinese tongue, and the marvellous terseness
which generally enables it to express in two or three syllables
ideas which would require five or six in Japanese and indeed
in almost any other language, form an argument in favour
of this species of Japanese Johnsonianism. On the other
hand, much confusion is caused by the fact that numbers of
Chinese words are pronounced alike. The consequence of
this is that it is often impossible to know what a term means,
without reference to the Chinese characters with which
it is written. In any case, whether he speak simply or
learnedly, the student should at least avoid speaking vulgarly.
Japanese resembles English in being full of slang and
vulgarisms of every sort. But what should we say to a
young Japanese, who, having been sent to London to learn
our language, should return home with the hacceni of ‘Jghgale
and the diction of the street Arab .? Japanese has also
many provincial dialects, some of which remain more faith-
ful in certain respects to the traditions of the Classical
language than does the dialect of Tokyo. But the dialect
of Tokyo (itself a slightly[modified form of the Kyoto dialect,
which was formerly considered the standard Colloquial) has
on its side an ever-increasing importance and preponderance,
?is the general niediupi of polite intercourse throughout the


country. Practical students are strongly advised to devote
themselves to it alone. If they speak it well, they will be as
generally understood as a man who speaks standard English
is generally understood in England, that is to say, they will
be understood everywhere by all but the peasantry, and in
most provinces even by the peasantry.

^ 7. Japanese writing consists of the Chinese characters, —
ideographs, as they are sometimes styled because represent-
ing sense not sound, whole words not individual letters, —
mixed with a syllabic writing called the Kana, Speaking
generally, the Chinese characters serve to figure all the
principal words of the sentence, such as nouns, adjectives, and
verbs, while the function of the Kana syllables interspersed
throughout the text is to transcribe phonetically such lesser
elements as particles and grammatical terminations. We
cannot here treat any further of this important subject, —
important because Japanese, like every language boasting
a long history and extensive literature, may be said to live
and move and have its being in its written system. Students
desirous of pursuing it can avail themselves either of
our work mentioned in the preface, or of one of the
*’ Readers” compiled for use in the primary schools, for
instance, the ” Shin-tai Toku-hon” published by the Kinkodo
at Tokyo. The characters may advantageously be attacked
very soon after the Colloquial, say, as soon as oral com-
munication between the student and his native teacher has
become established in however lame a way.

^ 8. A peculiarly intricate system of writing is not the only
barrier that divides the Colloquial from the language of books.
The Japanese still remain at the stage in which we were
during the Middle Ages. They do not write as they speak,
but use an antiquated and indeed partly artificial dialect


whenever they put pen to paper. This is the so-called
”Written Language.” Of the few books published in the
Colloquial, the best are the novels of a living author named
ICncho. The student who does not wish to trouble about
the characters, cannot do better than write out one of these
books from his teachers dictation. It should be added that
they contain not a few passages to which lady students would
take just exception. This is the case with all Japanese
fiction. It is not that the Japanese novelists love to wallow,
Zola-like, in vice. On the contrary, their sentiments mostly
leave nothing to be desired. But they have a stardingly
realistic way of calling a spade a spade. The titles of
Encho’s two best works are :—

* ‘ Boian-Dord, ” the story of a last century vendetta.

^^ Ezo-Nishtki Kokyd no leztiio,” an adaptation to modern
Japanese social conditions of Wilkie Collins’ **New

There is a periodical entitled ” Hyak-kwa-en,” which prints
Enshi’s and other popular story-tellers’ pieces verbatim.
Occasionally, too, the newspapers and the ”Transactions”
iDf the Educational, Geographical, and other learned Societies
reproduce a lecture exactly as taken down by the short-hand
writer from the mouth of the lecturer, and the reports of
the debates in the Imperial Diet are given verbatim in the
“Official Gazette” t “adoringly look at”) something belonging to
you; but I ask you to goran nasai (lit. “august-glance
deign “) something belonging to me. (See ^ 405. ) If you
hear beggars in the street shouting after you to shinjo a copper
to them, it is only because, having learnt from experience
that foreigners constandy misuse the honorifics, they think
to ingratiate themselves and to be more easily understood by
doing likewise. Were they addressing a Japanese, they would
never dream of saying anything so rude and so absurd.

Pronunciation and Letter- Changes.


^11. Japanese, ^when written phonetically with the Roman
alphabet, according to the phonetic spelling sanctioned by
Hepburn’s and Brinkley’s dictionaries, requires the same
letters as English, with the exception of /, q, v, and x. The
letter c occurs only in the combination ch, which is sounded
nearly like English chm ” church,” but a little more softly,
as cha, ” tea ;” chichi, “• milk.”

N. B, Dr. Hepburn’s system, M’hich practically coincides with that
recommended by the Royal Geographical Society for the transcription
of hitherto unromanisecl languages generally, has established itself in
[almost universal local use by reason of its simplicity. Not a few authors
have, it is true, deviated on minor points, either from inadvertence or
in order to satisfy their individual notions of phonetic perfection.
Probably no language admits of being written phonetically with absolute
precision ; and the present writer, for one, gladly sacrifices some minute
personal preferences for the sake of what is far more important in such
a case, — unity of usage.

^12. The vowels are sounded as in Spanish and Italian, but
are always short, unless marked with the sign of long
quantity. It is impossible to express the values of the
Japanese vowels correctly in English ; but, speaking ap-
proximately, we m2^y say that


a resembles the a in ^* father/’ but is shorten
e ,, ,, e ,, *’ men.”

/ ,, }, 2 ;> ”machine,” but is shorter.

,, ,,<?,, ” for ” (not ” four “).

u ,, ,,«,,” bush.”

c/ ,, i, ,, “bone,” but is a purer o.

u , , ,,<?<?,,” food. ”

T[ 13. Very great care must betaken to distinguish the short
from the long vowels ; for there are many words totally
distinct in meaning, but differing, so far as pronunciation is
concerned, merely in the quantity of their vowels, thus :
dozd, ” a mud godown ;”* ddzOy “please.”
koko, “here;” kokd, ” filial piety. ”

saiOy * ‘ a village ;” said^ ‘ * sugar. ”

ioru, “to take ;” IdrUy ” to pass through.”

isuji^ ‘ ‘ a cross-road ; Isuji, ‘ ‘ an interpreter. ”

zu/su, “[one, etc.] at a time ;” zu^su, ” a headache.”
The only long vowels of common occurrence are o and u.
Long a hardly occurs, excepting in the interjections a I ma I
fial and sa / and in the words obasan, “an old lady,”
‘ ‘ grandmamma,” and okkasan (but also okkasan), “mamma. ”
Long e hardly occurs, excepting in the interjection ne. Long
i does not occur, its place being taken by double ii^ as in
yoroshii, “good,” as it is considered that careful speakers
sound the two 1% separately.

^14. When preceded by another vowel or by n, the vowels e, i,
and are pronounced j/’^, yi, and wo respectively. Thus ue^
‘ ‘ dibovQ ‘” kon-iUy “marriage;” and shio, “salt,” are pro-
nounced (and by some tran si iterators written) uye, konyttiy

* ” Godown *’ is Far-Eastern EnglUli for a store-house or warehouse.
It comes from the Malay word ^fl^<?;(^, ” a warchousG.”


T[ 15. /and u are often inaudible, or nearly so in the mouths
of natives of Tokyo after/J h^ k, s, shy and /s, as

pronounced j> J” ^^


^16. Initial « is silent, and the following m doubled in the
pronunciation of the four words


”two,” prone




HI ”


“much,” “many,” ,


“there is,”




“the moon,” ,









umaref u,

“to be born,”




” a plum-tree,”



^ 17. The quiescent vowels are distinguished in this work by
the sign of short quantity, as IniOy shilay iakusan, uma. But
it should be noted that the Japanese themselves are not
conscious of failing to pronounce the f s and «’s in question,
and that these letters often recover their proper power for the
sake of clearness or emphasis. They count in prosody, and
are always sounded even in ordinary’ conversation by the
natives of many provinces. That is why they are allowed
to remain in the transliteration, most persons writing them
without any diacritical mark.

^18. The vowel «, when following sh or/, is often mis-
pronounced as i by the Tokyo people, thus :

ieishiy for leishUy ” a husband.”
* The h here has the Boand of German ch in ich^


They are also apt to mispronounce >’« as i, thus :
ikij foxyukiy * * snow ;” but this is distinctly vulgar.
^19. Be very careful to discriminate final e from final u
Englishmen are often unintelligible owing to their confound-
ing such words as
sakCy ** rice-beer,” and sakiy ”front,” ”before.”
iakCy “a bamboo;” ,, iaki, ” a waterfall. ”
yumey ‘ ‘ a dream ;” , , yumiy ‘ ‘ a bow. ”
Tf 20. The diphthongs aey ai, aOy auy et, oi, ui, call for no
remark, each vowel retaining its own proper sound, as in
Spanish or Italian. Englishmen and Germans must beware
of mispronouncing ei as in ” eiderdown ” or German
” klein.” Japanese ^1 being simply e-^t] the second syllable
of such a word as hreiy “p)retty,” sounds nearly like the
English word ‘ ‘ ray ” or the German ‘ * Reh, ” not at all like
“rye.” Be equally caref^;! not to give to au (ai-u) the
peculiarly English sound of “awe;” but pronounce, for
instance, /caUy “to buy,” very nearly like English “cow.”
In the case of verbs, however, ending in aUy such as ^aUy
“to buy ;” 7noraUy “to receixe ;” shilagaUy ” to follow,” it
is optional to pronounce the letter au like a long o. But
this is more characteristic of western Japanese than of Tokyo

^21. The vulgar in Tokyo say ai for aey and o/’for oe ; thus
maiy instead of »»a^, ” before ;” ^o«* (which means “love”),
instead of koey ‘ ‘ voice. ” They also often contract at into a
long e, as narane for naranaiy ” it won’t do.” But this is as
bad as the dropping of the letter h by cockneys.

^2, It is usual to write iu (rather than^/;) in the case of the
verb meaning *’to say.”

N. B, This is a concession to etymology, the other tenses^ being
itUf itta^ etc., with initial u


It is usual to write ou rather than o in the case of verbs
like omou, *’ to think ;” sorou^ ** to be in order.”

iV. B. Tliis is done in order to show the original and theoretical
conformity of these verbs to the general rule whereby the present tense
[must always end in tt.

^23. The consonants are pronounced approximately as in
English, subject to the following remarks : —

F^ a true labial, not^’the English labio-dental ; that is to
say, it is formed by means of the lips alone, not, as ouryis,
by placing the upper teeth on the lower lip.

G never has the sound of/ At the beginning of a word
it is pronounced hard, like the ^ in ‘* give.” In the middle
of a word it has the soifnd of English ng in ** slangy.”
Thus Kiga, the name of a place near Miyanoshita, rhymes
almost exactly with ‘* singer.” (Not with ”finger,” where
the ng does double duty, first to .render the sound of «^, and
then the sound of ^’ alone. This double sound is represented
in Japanese by the combination ng, as kin-gin, ‘ ‘ gold and
silver,” pronounced kin-ghin). Foreigners constantly err in
pronouncing such words as Ktga like Kinner or else Kigger,
instead of uttering the nasal sound of ”slangy,” “singer,”
” Bingham,” etc.

h B. In western Japan, g retains its hard pronunciation in all

^is pronounced as in English, except before the vowel <*,
when it assumes nearly the sound of the German ch in ich.
The syllable hi has, ‘”moreover, a tendency to pass into shi
and even into simple sh, especially in the mouths of the
vulgar of Tokyo, ^^vho pronounce, for instance, the word
higCy “beard,” as shigCy and hilOy “person,” as shio.
Careful Japanese speakers attempt (not always success-
fully) to avoid this error.


N final is pronounced half-way between a true n and the
French nasal «. When (as happens chiefly in Chinese
compounds) a syllable ending in n is followed by a ox u in
the next syllable, the n sounds very nearly like English ng,
and a distinct hiatus is made before the vowel. Tlixxs gen^an
(dlmost geng an), ”the draft of a document,” — quite dif-
ferent from ge-nan, which may equally weir be written genan,
‘ ‘ a man-servant. ” When the vowel next to n final is e, /, or
Oy a different method is resorted to (see ^ 14).

R is the very softest of English r s, and is never rolled
or gargled as in French and German. Some speakers
pronounce it almost as if it were a dental d, especially
before the vowel t

S is always sharp as in ” past,” never assuming the soft
or z sound heard in *’ misery.”

^ 24. W (pronounced exactly as in English) shows so
strong a tendency to become obsolete after k and g, not
only in Tokyo, but in most parts of the country excepting
the west, that it is optional to write, for instance, kwa-
shi or kashi, “cake;” Gwaimusho or Gaimusho, “the
Foreign Office.” Even between two vowels, as in omo-


j (anciently
}l j* probably/) »’









The broad law governing the use of the nigori is that
the initial surd (ch, sh, /”, //, k^ s, Is, or /) of an in-
dependent word — especially of a noun — changes into the
corresponding sonant -no^’Shiia,^
“below* of* Shinto-shrine^,” .i.e. “bSneath the shrine;”
E^-nd^’Shima^j “island” of* inlel^” Similarly in the case
of surnames, most of which are of geographical origin, being
borrowed from the names of the localities where the persons
who first assumed them resided, thus Ko-bayasht, “small
forest;” r-no^-ue “above” oP (the) welU; Ta}’naka
” among* (the) rice-fields^ ;” Yama-da, ” mountain rice-field,”
etc. Men’s personal names, answering to our Christian
names, are also nearly always compounds. Unfortunately
few of these personal names can be translated, founded, as
they are, on allusions to texts in the Chinese Classics, to
feudal functions now obsolete, to cyclical signs, and to
other recondite matters. Such names as Ta-ro, “big male,”

* In previous editions the word yane^ ” roof,” was cited in this context
as having been derived iromya, the original word for ** house ” (which
we also find in yashtkiy ” a mansion ;” kutstt-ya^ ” a shoemaker’s .shop,”
etc.), and mune, ” the breast,” hence ” the ridge of a roof.” This
etymology, borrowed from the Japanese grammarians, seems disproved
by the form of the parallel term in Luchuan,— _y« nu wty which corres-
ponds, letter for letter, to Japanese /« no ue, lit. ** top of house,” whence
we may sxx^^ose yane to have resulted by contraction. This instance
may serve to show how uncertain is the basis on which Japanese
derivations often rest, in the absence of a tribe of related tongues to serve
as a sufficiently broad standard of comparison. Native philologists of
the old school — even such great men as Motoori and Hirata— too often
permitted themselves to be guided by their ” inner consciousness ”
alone, like our own Western philologists of former centuries.


i.e., ” eldest son ; ” yi-ro, “second (lit. next) son ; ” Saburo
(for San-ro), “third son,” etc., are sufficiently clear.

-A^. B, For women’s personal names, see T 418.

All Chinese words of more than one character are com-
pounds, e.g. Chowan, “a tea-cup,” from cka, “tea,” and
2van, “a bowl;” sendo, “a boatman,” — properly “the
master of a junk,” — from sen, *’junk,” “vessel,” and /o
(nigort’Qd to dd), “head,” “chief;” Tokyo from /J,
“east,” and kyo, “capital city,” etc., etc.
Tf 51. As shown in the foregoing examples of mic/ii, “road,”
and Mikado, ** Emperor,” honorific prefixes sometimes
enter into the actual formation of words. Generally,
however, they are felt to be distinct entities, and are
therefore written separately, as

cha, lit. * * honourable tea, ” i.e. , * ‘ tea. ”

go moiiomo, lit. “augustly right,” i.e., *’you are

quite right”
mi ashi, lit. ** honourable august feet,” i.e.,
“your feet.”
For more detailed information concerning the honorifics,
which form so important and all-pervading an element of
Japanese speech, see Chapter XI.


Tf 52. Abstract nouns, expressing degree as well as quality,
are often derived from adjective stems by agglutinating
the syllable sa, thus :

aisusa, “heat,” “the
degree of heat”

omoshirosa, ” fun,”

“interest,” “the
degree of fun.”

samusa, ” cold,” ” the
degree of cold.”

shirosa, ” whiteness, ” the
degree of whiteness. ”


A tinge or souppn of a quality, hence sometimes the
actual quality itself, and even the object possessing the
quality, may be denoted by the termination mi agglutinat-
ed to an adjective stem, thus :

akaviij ” a tinge of red. ”

omoshiromiy “(a certain amount of) fun.”

shiromty “a tinge of white,” “the white of an t^g”

Amami ga usu

Sweetness – na* yatsu^^ ” a foolish^ (being*) fellow”. ”
choho na kikai, “a convenient machine.”
heta na e-kaki^ “an unskilful painter.”
jozu na e-kakiy ** a skilful painter.”
kirei na musume, “a pretty girl.”
odayaka na nami^ ”a calm sea” (lit. “calm waves”).


Some of these words — kirei^ for instance, — are so con-
stantly used as adjectives, that their proper sense as nouns
tends to pass out of remembrance. In the cases where it
is preserved, the word takes no after it when it is used as
a noun, and na when it is used as an adjective, thus :

heia> no^ naga^-dangi^, ” the long” speech* of an
unskilful^ (speaker),” a proverb signifying that bad
speakers are apt to say more than the occasion requires.

heia} na^ isha* sama^, lit, “unskilful* being’ physician
Mr*,” i.e. “an unskilful doctor.”

“This price.”
“This sort of price.”
” That way ;” ” as it is.”

“That sort of thing.”

(“That high mountain
I (over there).”



i ^ ^ ^ ^ -^ -§ •§ *§

606 So >. g ft


(are, Latin ”ille”), the former being used of things not very
distant and of things connected with the person spoken
to, while the latter is applied to things which are distant
or have relation to the person spoken of. He must note
furthermore that Japanese, like French, distinguishes
substantive forms of these pronouns from adjective forms,
e.g. hre, ” cclm-ci,” but kono, ** ce.”

^ 75. Here are a few examples of the use of the substantive
forms ^ore, “this;” sore, **that” (near); are, *’that”
(far) ; dore ? ” wliich ?” dare P or more politely donata ?
*’s\ornani? *’what?”—

Kore wa omoshirou (i.e., “As for this, it is amusing,”
This as’fw, amusinff. or more briefly, ‘* This is fun.”

Sore wa, nan desu ? V’ What is that (which you have in
That as’fw, what u

” This price.”
“This sort of price.”
“That way;” “as it is.”

“That sort of thing.”

(“That high mountain
I (over there).”


Anna iohbmonai kake-ne, j ” Such an extravagant price
That-Wee auirageaua avercharge, | as that. ”

(Said in speaking to a third party. In addressing the shopkeeper who was
guilty of the overcharge, one would say sonna, not amut, because sonna corres-
ponds to the second person, anna to the third.)

Bono tsumori </«/= I “With what intention?”

What inletUton hyf I

Do iu tsumori deP,. ^ith what kind of intention ?”

Haw 9ay inienUan by ? j

^ 77. What we have here, for convenience’ sake, termed
adjective forms, are not adjectives properly so called. Kono
was originally two words, viz. kOy * ‘ this ” (substantive), and
«o, ** of,” so that kono meant ^’of this.” Similarly in the
case ofsono, ano, and dono P, which meant respectively ” of
that” (nearer) or ”of him,” ” of that” (further) or ”of
him,” and “of which?” They still preserve this their
ancient sense in certain contexts, as :

, , , , sono fame, ” (for the) sake of that. ”

• • *• • soHo oya, ‘ ‘ his (or her) parent.”

•• •

Siim2iY]y, kono nedan, translated above by “this price,”
may also mean on an occasion “the price of this.”

KonnUy “such,” is a contraction oi kono yd na, lit. ” this
manner being,” i.e., “being in this way,” “being thus.”
Similarly sonna is from sonoyo na^ anna from anoyb na, and
donna ? ^om dono yb na ? Kb iu^ “such,” means literally
” thus (they) say,” i.e. “people call it thus.” So tu, a iu^
and do iu ? have a similar etymology.

^78. Before words of Chinese origin, the adjective* pronouns
“this “and “that” are often expressed by the syllable to
(S), a Chinese vocable properly signifying “the one in
question,” ” the actual one,” as :

ib-nin, ” the person in question,” ” this ^ ?

‘ “Is” that* the hotel*
in which you* staid’*’*’
(lit honourably o, deign-
ed nastta, to stay iomari)
Jast year* ?”

le ; watalmshi wa iomarimasen

No; me as- for stay-not

ga — , saku-nen iomodachi ga

whereas— lastryear friend nd^ yosu^ de* wa^^ furt^ ka^ to^ omoitara*, sukkari^’^
haremashiia^^y i.e. ”The weather, which looked like rain
this morning, has cleared up beautifully ;” more lit. “By*
appearance’ of* lhis-morning when- (I) had-thoughl* that®
” Will-(il) rain ?•>’,” quite”^ (it) has-cleared”.”

^ 86. The words iokoro no, lit. *’of place,” are sometimes
used by the educated classes in relative phrases as a sort of
substitute for the relative pronouns ” who,” ” which,” and
” that.” But these words really add nothing to the sense,
and only encumber the construction. They owe their origin
to the slavish imitation of a Chinese idiom. Thus :

Kuru iokoro no htlo, for Kuru htio,

Kim kiia iokoro no hUo, ,, Kino kUa hiio.

Shinakucha naran iokoro ,, ShinilmchanaranK^^
no koio desuy koio desu, i a

N, B, The student is recommended to compare the Japanese and
English texts of any of the longer pieces given in Tart II of this work.
Such comparison, carefully carried out, will teach him better than
anything else the manner in which Japanese thought moves under
circumstances which, in our European idiom, demand the employment
of relative pronouns or other relative words. The subject is important
enough to reward any amount of trouble taken on its behalf.



The Postposition.


Tf 87. Japanese postpositions correspond for the most part to
English prepositions, serving like them to indicate those
relations of words which Latin, German, and other Aryan
languages of the older type denote by the use of case-

There are two kinds of postpositions, viz. postpositions
proper and quasi-postpositions (T[ 141 ei seq,

The postpositions proper, with their most usual significa-
tions, are as follows :


^ 88. De has two widely different uses. One is to render the
sense of “by,” whence also “with,” “by means of,” less
often “in.” This its first acceptation offers no difiiculty.
In its second acceptation, de seems at first sight to mean
nothing at all, and thus puzzles the foreign student who is
desirous of accounting for its presence in the sentence.
De is here etymologically a corruption of nite, itself the
gerund of an obsolete substantive verb. Its proper sense
is therefore “being.” But in most contexts this de has
sunk so completely to the level of a mere grammatical
particle as not to need translating into English. It is a moot
point whether what was originally one word has branched
out into these two significations, or whether two words

originally distinct have coalesced into a single particle.
Here are a few examples of de meaning “by,” “with,”

Nawc^ d^ shtbart^, ” To lie’ by means of * a rope*.”

Hasami^ d^ kirt^, * ‘ To cut* with* scissors*.”

Inu wo kusari de

ihfff ”

(”The bath is ready.”
Furo^ wa^ dekimashtta^ . j (^More lit. ” As-for2 the bath,i it-has-
^ forthcome.*”)

Furo wa dekimashiia ka ? ^’& the bath ready ?”
If the sentence already contains some other interrogative
word — an interrogative pronoun or adverb, — ka is often
omitted, and it is generally best to omit it, thus :

^n^doki ni mairimash-o /^^ /^ | – At what o’clock shall

Whal-hmir at f^vM-come ? fir a ?”

or Nan-doki ni niairimashb ? )

lisu shtnimashtta is, j jt Jg fine. “)

” Out at sea the waves
seem pretty rough ; so
‘probably the vessel will
not sail. ”

Oki wa, yohodo nami ga ”

Offing as-for, plentifkOly tvave8

As here exemjjlified, no ni occurs chiefly in phrases
expressive of censure or regret. Conf. T[ 287 for further
details concerning this important idiom.

T[ 139. Observe that no and wa^ wjjjien combined, change by
euphony into ivobj^ which is used to denote a specially

‘ ‘ Why have you changed
their order, when it did quite
well as it was ?”

on, riding isn’t

ka ? — Tsukue no ue desu,

? TaMfi ‘a top – book.”)

I *^ Six places.”
Gunkan jiS’So. **Ten war-vessels.”

Ushihyap-piku ( ,. ^ hundred head of cattle.”

Ushi hyaku’io,

o , ( ** A thousand sparrows ” (ill

Suzumesemha, ^.^^„

j- portions ror^^^^.^.

two. ‘

(“twenty ?^r

(cent. ‘

m-wari C – twenty-five ^^^.^^^^ .^ ” thirty-five

£0’5u, per cent. ” ^ ‘ ( per cent.

/m^suor) i”twoat^frj^[ (”tl

m-mat^eic.) ‘ (a time. ^^^ ‘i ‘ (ati

”in the third

three at

dat ni ni

( “in the second ^ “in 1

‘, ■< place,” daisanniy ^ place,

(“secondly.” ( “thin

fuiaisu milsUj
ju ni hak’ku,

ten in, eight-nine,

hitoisu okiy
one omittiny,

ichi-nichi oki, (famiL) |

kakU’jtisUy (elegant.) J

‘ ‘ two or three. ”
“four or five days.”
” fifteen or sixteen persons.”
” eight or nine out of ten,” hence


^almost always.”
” every other one, alternate.”

“every other day.”


The Adjective.


^ 175. The salient points of the primary inflections of adjec-
tives in the Tokyo Colloquial may be compendiously de-
scribed as follows : —

I. Adjectives have a form in i, which is both attributive
and predicative, that is to say, which may be used either
prefixed to a noun, or else at the end of a sentence with
the English verb ”to be” understood, thus:

Takai yama, “A high Yama ga iakai, “The moun-

mountain.” tain is high.”

Samui kaze, “A cold Kaze ga samui, “The wind

wind.” is cold.”

N, B, Ga must not be mistaken for the equivalent of the English
word “is.” It is a postposition serving approximately to denote
the nominative case. (See p. 66.)

II. Adjectives have a form in o or «, which is used in-
stead of the form in i when gozaimasu, the polite verb
for “to be,” is expressed. Thus :

Yama ga iakb gozaimasti, “The mountain is high.”

Kaze ga samu gozaimashb. “The wind is probably


III. Adjectives have a form in hu, which is used when
a verb other than gozaimasu follows; and which often,
though not always, corresponds to an English adverb in
^My ;” thus :


Fama ga iakaku miemasu. f ” The mountain looks

MownUidn ^ *’^ “–Ah! Jes; that

(IS It

Ano otoko way dofno akip-
pd. — So sa ! Meturashii koto
ga suki nan da kara.

hikkomu fto ga atarimae da to
taiiei wa omotte imasu ga^—jitsu^
way asa taiyo ga deru no de wa”
nakutey taiyo no deru no ga asa
nan desu»

” He is a very fickle fellow. — Yes in-
deed, because he is always hankering
after something new and striking.”

rr> ‘ – J . -z / ** Most people suppose it to be the

Tmyo wa asa deU, »*«*«» (^tural oJSr of ^s for the sun

to rise in the morning and to retire
in the evening. But the truth is
not that the sun rises in the mor-
ning, but that the sun’s rising is the

Of the various authorities, both Japanese and foreign, whom the
present writer has consulted on the subject of this idiom, some pro-
nounce it to be ” relative,” others ” relative!, elliptical, and reflective(!).”
Some say that it is a corruption of naruy ** to be.” Others would trace
it back to the word nani ? ” what?” used as a kind of expletive indicat-
ing vagueness, like •* thingummy ” or ” what-d’ye-call-’em ” in vulgar
English. Others again assert that the phrase means nothing at all. We
ourselves incline to see in it a survival of the Classical particle nauy
(Archaic na mo)y wliich served to emphasise the word to which it was
suffixed. Observe, however, tliat whereas Classical nan may occur
before any verb, this Colloquial nan survives only before the verb ** to
be,” as in all three examples given above.


drawn distinctions are sometimes produced in this way. Thus f/tarui
kao no hlio means ” a man with a round face,” the concrete idea of
** face ” being here prominent. But tnaru-gao tm hiio means ” a round-
faced man,” the abstract quality of round-facedness being uppermost
in the speaker’s mind. This particular phrase might be turned in yet
a third way, viz., kao no marni hiio, ” a man round of face.” Such
idioms as this last are dealt with in 202. In some few cases no and
na may be used almost indiscriminately. Thus we may say mugaku
no Juto or mugaku na- htto equally well. But na is more common.

^ 198. To the class formed by means of na belongs a
numerous body of words obtained by adding so, •* appear-
ance,” to the stem uf adjectives proper or to the indefinite
form of verbs, thus :

omoshiroi, ** amusing;” onioshirosu na, ‘Mikely to be

amusing.” ** amusing-looking.”

Yifnai, *’ nice to cat ;*’ umaso na, ** appetising.”

^uru, ” to rain ;” furisb na, ” likely to rain.”

kikoeru, ‘* to be audible ;” M'(?^56» «a, *’ audible, one

would suppose.”

The ioxx£i% yosasb na, ” apparently good,” and nasaso. na,

*’ not likely to exist,” are derived irregularly from the

adjectives ^(?/, **good,” and «^/, ‘* non-existent,” by the

insertion of an epenthetic syllable sr?. Compounds of nai,

such as isuniaranai, ** worth nothing,” “trifling,” may

either follow nai’m this its irregularity, or else be made to

conform to the rule affecting adjectives in general, thus :

isumaranasasb na or isumaranaso na, * ‘looking worth

nothing,” *’ trifling-looking.”

^ 199. Sometimes words of the above two classes may be
compounded with the following noun, instead of being
divided from it by no or na, for instance :

kara na (or no) hako, or karaha-ko, ‘ * an empty box. ”
kin no tokei, ,, kindokei, ‘* a gold(en) watch.”


Sometimes, again, a word may be treated indifferently
either as a true adjective or as a quasi-adjective of class II,
for instance :

chiisai, o chusana^ ** small.”

okit^ ,, oHna, “big.”

yctwarakaty ^, yawaraka na^ ”soft.”

T[ 200. The forms of classes I and II given above are the
attributive forms. When the quasi-adjectives of classes I
and II are used predicatively at the end of a clause (conf.
iSo), no OT na is replaced by de, “being,” which thus
corresponds to the termination ku of adjectives proper.
When ihey are used predicatively at the end of a sentence
(conf. ^ 177), no or na is replaced by any tense of the verb
“to be,” such as da (familiar), desu (polite), de gozaimasu
(very polite). The word de in such contexts has been
treated of at some length in ^ 88, pp. 62 — 64, which the
student should carefully read over.

^ 201. The following examples will show the use of these
various forms of the quasi-adjectives of classes I and II : —

fgirisu m o kaia. ..An English gentleman.”

England ‘a honourable side, f

Gin no ga hoskiu gozaimasu. „ j ^^^^ ^ silver one.”

SUver one of desirous am. ^

S^Si^}^-“^^^’- “A funny story.”

Kekko na o shina

Splendid honourable artiael *’ It is a Splendid thing.”

de gozaimasu. f (-Sn/V/ /« thanking one for a gift.)

(t/) is, )

Ftishigi na yume wo ^
strange dream na

ranai’, ( ‘n<»”°’ ‘^'””‘”1 hence « indispensable.
iame^ ni* na- *’ becomes Mo* sake*” ,, ”beneficial.”

ki ni iranaiy

‘* enters’ to’ spirit^ ;”
”enters-not to spirit ;”

h’^ no* kiiid^y ” was -efficacious* of*

spirit^ ; ”
isumi^ no^aru^y ‘* is* of guilt’ ; ”
enry(?^ suru^^ *’ does* diffidence’ ,*”
iai^ sma *’ did* great’ ; ”
choiio’^ shiia* ‘ ‘ did* slightly’; ”

gaiet^ no^ /”goes-not^ of* com-l
ikat^ ^ orehension’: ” i

** distasteful.”

” diffident.”
” important.”
” incomprehen-

prehension’; ”

^206. The above are the attributive orms. Most of them
serve also to express the predicative relation at the end of
a sentence. Observe, however, that no must then be re-
placed by ga^ and the simple past tense in ia by the com-
pound present tense in … ./^ iru (^ 294), thus :

Ano ojiisan wa^ ‘

That old-genUeman aa-for,

fuioiie iru.

fat ia,

Ano jochu wa^ ki

That maid aa-for, aptrii

ga kiiie iru.

^ 209. Do not confound such Chinese quasi-adjectives as
kireif “pretty;” mumei, “anonymous,” with real adjec-
tives, simply because they happen to end in i. One can-
not say kirei onna, ” a pretty woman ;” one must say
kirei na onna. Similarly mumei na kaiana, *’ a sword without
the maker’s name inscribed on it.”


^ 210. V. The words ko forming diminutives and 5 forming
augmentatives, together with the honorific prefixes o,*
“honourable;” go, ”august;” ki, “exalted;” and mi,
” honourable,” are quasi-adjectives, as in the following
examples :

ko’bin, “a small bottle.”
o-bm, ** a large bottle.”
o iera, ” an honourable Buddhist temple,” i.e., simply

“a Buddhist temple.”
go hon, *’ the august book,” i.e., *’ your book.”
ki-koku, ” the exalted country, i.e., ” your country.”
mi ashiy lit. ‘ ‘ august honourable feet,” i. e., generally

“your feet.”

N, B, and ko frequently cause the nigort’ing of the word to
which they are i..refixcd, as o-dcra^ “big temple;” ko-dera, “small
temple ;” ko-jima^ ” small island ” (but o-shima, without the nigori^
” big island”). Such compounds as these are extremely common in
place-names, the whole Japanese coast being lined with Oshima’s
and Kojima’s. To express the idea “« big island,” “a small island,”
the longer equivalents dki va skima, chiisa na shima, would sound
more natural, and similarly in most other cases.

The honorifics o and go are also used adverbially, thus :
O^ yasumi^ nasai^, lit. ** honourably’ deign” to rest,*”

i.e., “good night.”
Goyururiio, ” augustly quietly that,” i.e., ” Don’t in-
jure yourself by overdoing it (in walking, etc.).”

A noticeable peculiarity of this fifth class of quasi-adjec-
tives is that they only occur prefixed to other words. They
cannot be used predicatively at the end of a clause or
sentence. If, for instance, we want to predicate smallness
of a thing, we cannot say that it is ko. We must use a to-

• Carefully distinguish long dy “large,” from short o, ” honourable.”


tally distinct word, such as chiisai. (For further details
concerning the honorifics o, go, etc., see Chap XI, 395
et seg,)


^211. Comparison in Japanese is more often implicit than
explicit. Thus, when referring to the relative height of
Fujiyama and Asama-yama, a Japanese will not say as we
should, *’ Fujiyama is the higher,” but simply “Fujiyama
is high ” ”

So shicha komarimasu, ( ‘* Annoyance will be

80 doinff-indeed, tvUl be-trMMed. (Caused if yOU do that.”

”It won’t do for you
to do that,” or **You
mustn’t do that.”

“It won’t do not to
do this,” ic, *’You
mus/ do this.”

So shicha ikeniasen.

So doing indeed, is-^io-go.

Ko shinakucha narmasen,

Tliia not’doing, 9COn’t’become.


Ki WO oiosKicha

Spirit (acats.) lettina-faU as-far, I ” You mustn’t let
ikemasen. fyour spirits droop.”

is-no-go. j

N. B. The last three examples illustrate what has already been said
in the Note at top of p. 175 concerning the rendering of our word “must”
by a double negative in Japanese, while also showing that ” must not ”
is rendered by a single negative. Observe, moreover, the general
tendency to use the emphatic gerund chiefly in phrases expressing ne-
gation, interrogation, or something disagreeable.

Tl 285. Desideratrve Adjective and Adjective of Probability. —
The use of these forms may be best understood from a few
examples :

Mitai mono. j ** Something I

iran<-to-«ec ihhm. (should like to see.’

Sono mono wo mitai. ] “I want to see

That thinff ^ ^^^ g^od.

“good to eat.”)) *’ I am not likely to
be able to go.”

f” It is too nasty lo

Kyo no



Ih-‘day ‘a





korae-l «*The heat to-
oanno«-Uay fg unbear-
I able.

T[ 310. Potentiality is often otherwise expressed by means
of the verb dekiru, a corruption of the Classical ‘ ho^ ga^ yokaro*, **It had better be given up,” ///,
“The forbore* side* will-probably-be-good*.”

Kore^ wc? nani^ ni* isukaimast^ ? ” What is this used for?”
lU, ” As-fof* this’, (people) use* (it) for* what* ? ”

Kor^ zva^y nan^ de^ dekiie^ orimast^ ? ‘* What is this made
of? ” /wf. *’ As-for* lhis what* by* forthcoming is* ? ”

Konnd}^ ianst^ wa^, doko* d^ kaemastf ? ‘ ‘ Where are such
cabinets as this to be bought ? ” //*/. ‘ * As-for’ such* cabinets*,
where* at* are-buyable* ? ”

These examples, together with those given on pp. 57 — 8
and in ^[439, besides others scattered throughout the volume,
may serve to show the student how passive idioms are
avoided. He could hardly do better than forbid himself the
use of them altogether during the first six months of his
battle with the language.


^315. Japanese has a large class of verbs which it is generally
convehijent to translate by English passive or potential

: idioms, bat which in Japanese itself are, properly speaking,
intraiisitiye. Even in English we feel a difference between

206 • THE VERB,

two such assertions as ‘* The gold is melting in the furnace,**
and ” The gold is being melted in the furnace.” In the first
case the melting appears as a spontaneous event; in the
second case it is explicitly declared to be the work of some outer
agent The verb of the former corresponds to the Japanese
iokerUt ” to melt ” (intransitive) ; that of the latter to hkareru,
” to get melted ” (passive derived from the transitive hJtu,
“to melt”). There are thus numbers of intransitive verbs
of the second conjugation, formed from transiiives of the
first conjugation by changing the termination u into eru : —


kaku, kakeru, “to write.”

kiru, kireru, “to cut.”

ioku^ tokeru, ” to melt.”

torn, ioreru, “to take.”

uru, ureru, “to sell.”

yomu, yomeru, “to read.”

^316. The Iransitives Jdru, uru, yomu, etc., are used in
translating such phrases as “to cut a slab of stone,” “to
sell goods,” ” to read a sentence.” The in transiiives kireru,
ureru, yomeru, are used in translating such phrases as ” This
stone cuts easily,” “These goods sell cheaply,” “This
sentence does not read well.” The Japanese construction
is less closely followed, but practical convenience often best
served, by employing the word “can,” thus :

” You can cut this stone easily.”
” These goods can be sold cheaply.”

More especially is this the case when the original verb is
itself intransitive according to English ideas, thus : tkUj ” to
go ;” ikerUj ” (I) can go.” But there is never any reference
to ” I ” or *’ can ” in the mind of the Japanese speaker.


Tf 317. The difference between the intransitives in eru and the
true potentials in areru and rareru is that the latter tend
to express moral ability — “may” rather than ”can,” —
because the moral ability to perform an action depends on
the sanction of a law outside the agent ; whereas the forms
in eru express a physical ability — **can” rather than
** may,” — because the physical ability to perform an action
is generally independent of any outer will. Thus ikemasu
means ‘* one can go” (because the way is easy, or because
one is a good walker). Ikaremasu means ” one can go ”
(because there is no prohibition against so doing). It is
true that the two forms are sometimes confounded, just as
English speakers occasionally use *’ can’t ” where * * mayn’t ”
would be more appropriate.

N, B, Ikenai (politely ikemasen) is an idiom of constant occurrence
in the sense of ** (that) won’t do.”

T[ 318. The difference in meaning between the passive forms
in areru and rareru and the intransitives in eru, the former
implying, and the latter not implying, the action of an outer
agent, may be illustrated by the following example. Kirare^
mashtia would be used in speaking of a man who had been
killed (lit. cut) by some highwayman or other person.
Kireta would be used in speaking of a rope which had
snapped spontaneously, or of friendly intercourse which had
dropped without either of the parties to it formally breaking
with each other.

T[ 319. Verbs belonging to the second and third conjugations
are not capable of forming intransitives in eru, and therefore
make shift with the passive potentials in rareru. Note
however mieru, “to be visible,” “to seem,” formed
irregularly from miru^ ” to see.” Like it is kikoeru, “to be
audible,” formed from kiku, ” to hear.”



Sbzoshikuie kikoemasen,

Betng-noUy, is-twt-audUde.

lenai koto wa nai.
CktnvMi’ac^ fact iMa^for, iS’tiot.

Kono mama de wa irarenai.

TMa fdsMon by €ts-for, cannat-be.

Kore de wa^ iotemo tkemasen,

TMa bff a»~for, positively goes-not.

Tf 32a The following are a few examples of intransitives :

** There is such a
row, I can’t bear a

I “It can be said
speakers. But in the Colloquial of Kyoto, in the language
of the stage, and frequently in printed Colloquial (co-called),
it takes the place of dfa. It must not be confounded with
_/’«, the Tokyo contracted form of the two postpositions </<?
way as in Koreja naiiox Kore de wa naiy ** It is not this.”
(Conf. 89, p. 64.)


^ 348. Naru, ” to be,” not to be confounded with naru, *’ to
become,” belongs almost entirely to the Written Language.
We still find, however, in common use the form naraha
explained on p. 185, and such expressions as isoganakereba^
nan’masen’, lit ” it-is-noi* (i.e., it won’t do) if-one-hurries-
not^” i.e., “you must make haste;” also occasionally the
“conclusive present*” nan used to separate the various
items of an enumeration, and hence coming to correspond
to our conjunction ” or :”

7oka nari, haisuka nari.
Ten-days is, twenty •tUtys is.

” Ten or twenty days ;”
less It/. ‘ ‘ ten days or a

^349. AS^/rw, properly “to do,” sometimes passes over into
the sense of “to be.” See TfT[ 356 and 357.


^ 350. No verb recurs more constantly in Japanese than the
irregular verb suru, the paradigm of which has been given
on p. 159, and whose primary signification is “to do,”
” to make,” the French /izzre. Sometimes it stands inde-
pendently in its proper sense of doing or making, the noun
governed by it taking the accusative postposition wo, as
usual with transitive verbs, thus :

Ikusa wo suru. ” To make war.”

Shiiaku wo suru. ” To make preparations.”

Ryori wo suru. ‘ ‘ To cook ” {/aire la cuisine).

yama wo suru. ” I*^, “^^^ obstruction.” i.e..

^ ” to be m the way.

Mane wo suru.

r ” To make imitation,” ” to
} imitate,” also simply to “to
( do ” (something bad).

* One form of the present tense is so termed in the Written Language.
Conf. If 177, p. 121.

So sKiie,

suRU, 32.5.

” Having done so ;” *« and

I then.

Omae do shimasu P ” What are you doing ?”


Compare also such adjectival and adverbial expressions
as c^an^ to^ shtfa^, lit. “did* that’ quieO,” i.e., simply
‘* quiet f sube-sube^ shti^y lit. ” having-done* smooth*,” i.e.,
siniply “smoothly.” ‘”‘] “a little,”
1: f “Slightly.”

hakari, “about,” “only.”

ch% teishi)


ani religion

io leba, soshiki no ioki

thai if-one-says, funeral-rile ‘s time

bakari ni mochiiru koto no

only in emjaloy thing ‘s

yd ni omoimasu.

nunnner in ‘

Pray sit down a

I. Amari, conf. f 219, p. 148. — ^3. I.e., ” You are grateful to me for
having done what?” It is still more polite to substitute Do isuka-
matsurimashtte iot Do iiaskimashite.’^^. Observe the avoidance of the
passive, and conf. p. 205. — 7. After chito supply koshi woy “tlie





A’lUae y
‘0 f

Chitto haiken.




adwing-lodk (lei me do).

^,^a…. or 0i

Possibly it may be so.

One is tempted to
think sOj and yet on the
other hand ….

You mustn’t do that.

That is not so ; or
Oh ! no.

103. Deshtta might be omitted without mutilating either the
sense or the grammar ; but the Japanese like thus to]^round ;oflf,

Just go and ask my
teacher to come here.

It is impossible to hold
one’s tongue on being
spoken lo in that way.

40. A phrase used by any of a household to their master, or by
hotel people to a guest. — 41. Gakkari is a sort of onomatope for ex-
haustion. — 42. At the end supply tnoite kite ktire, *’ please bring.” —
44. Deru no wa might be replaced by deru no wo, — 46. See p. 276.



48. Soko no dole ye agaru
to, junsa ni to gamer aremasu.

49. Sono koto ga shireru io^
oM nifntsugb de gozaimasu,

50. Taisb ase ni natla kara^
kimono wo sukkari ki-kae-

51. Taiso kumoiie viairima-
shiia. Soko-hie no sum toko
wo mimasu tOj komhan atari
wa yuki ga furii ka mo shire-

52. Tsugi no shuku
nan ri gozaimasu P


53. Tsumaranai
ii’kakeraretey bki

koto wo
ni koma-

54. Watakushi wa achira
no ho ye ichi-do mo itta koto
ga nai kara, annai wo httori
yatotte kudasai. .

55. Fuki wa kirei desu ga,
— ato no michi ni komari-

The police will find fault
with you, if you walk on
that embankment.

It will never do for that
to get known.

I have got into such a
perspiration, that I think I
will change all my clothes.

The sky has all clouded
over. I feel thoroughly
chilled, which makes me
think that perhaps it may
snow to-night.

How many miles is it lo
the next town .?

I felt much annoyed at
being addressed in that

As I have never been
in that direction before,
please engage a guide for

Snow is pretty to look at,
but it puts the roads in a
frightful state afterwards.

48. Lit. ” the embankment of there.” — 51. Toko is for iokoro, ” place,”
hence*’ fact.” Mimasu to, ” when I see,” ” when I consider ” (the fact
that there is, i.e. that I am feeling, an under-chill). For suru in the
sense of ” to he,” see 356, p. 227. Furu ka mo shiremasen, lit. ” one
cannot know whether it will snow.” — 54. Itta koto, conf. ^ 277, p. 178.
55. More lit. “one is troubled by the after- roads.”




1 . Mada ma 7ii airnasho ka ?
— Mo via ni aimasen.

2. Mb ma fit ai??iastimat ka P
Mada ma ni aimasu.

3. Omoshirb gozaimashita ka P
— le ; amari omoshiroku wa

4. Go hydki wa ikaga de
gozamasu ka P — Arigaib go-
zaimasu. Oki ni kqkoro-yohi

5. Do kangae nasaru ka P
Kangae ga istlkimasen.

6. Waiakushi-domo ni mo mi-
rafemasho ka P — Mirarenai
koto wa arumai.

7. Anaia wa^
ga gozaimasu
waiakushi wa


ka P — le ;

dokushiii de

Shall I still be in time ?
— No, you won’t.

Don’t you think I shall
still be in time ? — Yes, you

Was it amusing ? — No,
not very.

How do you feel to-day ?
— Much better, thank you.

What do you think about

it? — I can’t arrive at any

Can I too be allowed to
see it, do you think ? — I
don’t think there is any rea-
son why you should not.

Have you any children ?
— No, I am a bachelor.

3. For amari, see p. 148. For the iva after omoshiroku^ conf. p.
88. Such elJiptical sentences as ” No, not very ” in the Kngh’sh version
of this example and the answer in the next example, are not admis-
sible in Japanese.— 5 The answer is lit. ” consideration sticks not.” —
6. Conf, ^309, pp. 201-2, and 1[ 432» P- 271. — 7. More lit. ** As for
you, are there honourable children ?”



8. Ryokb menjo wo o mochi
de gozaimasu ka ? — He I shoji
itashtte orimasu.

9. Embi-fuku de irasshaimasu
ka ? — Sore de naku mo,
furohhu-hbio de yoroshii.

10. meshi-mono wo
ki’kae nasaimasu ka P — lya !
kono mama de^ uwagi dake
yoi ho to kaeyo.

11. Senjilsu wa, kekkb na
shina wo arigatb zonji-

Db itashmashite ! Makoto ni
somatsu na mono de, shiisurei
de gozaiviashiia.

Have you got a passport ?
— Yes, I have.

Are you going in even-
ing clothes, Sir ? — No, my
frock-coat will do well

Are you going to change
your clothes, Sir ? — No, I
shall remain as I am, ex-
cept that I will put on a
better coat.

Many thanks for the
beautiful present you made
me the other day.

Oh ! pray don’t mention
it. It was really such
rubbish, that it was quite
rude of me to offer it to you.

8. Ryoko may be omitted. The answer to this question is rather
high-flown. In simpler parlance it would be He! tnotie orimasu, —
9. In Chinese ^« = ” swallow,” /^^’ = “tail,” /«/&« = ” clothes.” Sore
de naku mo, “even without that.” Ftirokku-koto is the nearest
approach to ” frock-coat,” of which Japanese organs are capable. — 10.
Meshi-mono is a very polite term for clothes, used chiefly by servants
in addressing their masters. Yoi ^^=”the good one,” or ** a better
one,” **my best one.” Observe the simple non-honorific kaeyo, used
by the master in addressing his servant. Between friends it would be
kaemasho ; and the servant in the question uses the still more honori-
fic periphrasis ki-kae nasaimasu. — ii. (Answer.) It is the rule to
use some such depreciatory phrase as this in speaking of a present
made by oneself to another. The self-depreciation does not sound at
all excessive to Japanese ears. For the de in somatsu na mono de, see
p. 138, ^ 2CO et seq. This method of correlating sentences must be
carefully studied.— 12. When there is no bell, as in all old-fashioned
Japaneses houses, the visitor cries out O iano* mdshimasu as in No. 14.
The servant here says simply taku, rather than o taku, in order to
avoid applying honorifics to any one connected with the family he
himself belongs to, even though it be the lady of the house herself.



12. (Visitor rings the bell,
and servant appears. )

Irasshaimashi /

Okusama way uchi de
gozaimasu ka ?

He I iaku de gozaimasu,

13. Rusu-chu ni donaia mo
ide wa nakaita ha ?

He ! senkoku kono tefuda no
kaia ga irasshaimashiley kaeri
ni nattara, ‘^ Voroshiku” to

(This last clause is a polite phrase in^N
constant use, J

14. O tano

Well, I should say that $14 or I15 would be ample.

henji. The sentence is incomplete ; but such incomplete sentences
ending in ga are of frequent occurrence, the speaker not knowing ex-
actly what to add ; conf. p. 186.— 2. Ikaga desho ka is more or less
equivalent to *• I don’t know ; ” see 375, p. 235.


6. Meal Hours. — Kochira de tm, gozen no jikoku wa,
nan-ji to nan-ji desu ka ?

He I hint wa ju-ni-n han dt oyashoku ga shichi-ji han
de gozaimasii.

Sore de wa^ asa-han wa ?

He I asa way Mmari ga gozaimasen. Anala no go isugo

7. An Enquiry. — Moshi! uke-isuke wa, kochira desu

Hei! koko zvo massugu ?tt ide ni nam io, sugii soko desu.

8. Anothe Enquiry. — Koko kara Fuji ga inieru to wa,
honio desu ka ?

Ma I mieru to mosu koto de gozaimasu,

9. Talking to a Child. — Sa, boichan! koko ye kake
nasai. O oionashii koto I O ikutsu desu ka P


Taiso okii koto I Gakko ye kayoi desu ka P
He f mainichi ikimasu ga, — kyb wa^ doybhi desu kara,
/n’ru’giri desKita,

10. Talking to a Father. — Kono ko wa, anata no go
shisoku de gozaimasu ka P

He I ivaiakushi no sbryb de gozaimasu.
Sore iva, iaisb rippa na go shisoku wo o mochi nasai-
inashile, sazo ianoshimi de gozaimashb.
le ! dbmo, wampaku de komarimasXi»

6. JiMii-ji han de : notice how de, used predicatively, correlates
this clause with the next ; conf. ^ 200, p. 138, and the fourth and fifth
examples on p. 139. After asa-han wa, supply i/sti de gozaimasu?
After s/iidai, supply de gozaimasu. — 7. For I’oko ivo, conf. p. 232.—
3. To wa stands for to iu koto wa, ” the assertion that Fuji can,” etc.—


‘6. Meal Hours. — What are the hours for meals
here ?

Luncheon is at half-past twelve, and dinner at half-
past seven.

Then what about breakfast ?

Breakfast ? There is no fixed time for it, Sir. You can
have it whenever convenient to yourself.

7. An Enquiry. — Please, is this the enquiry office ?

No ; but you will come to it in a minute, if you go
straight on. ^

8. Another Enquiry. — Is it true that Fuji can be seen
from here ?

Well, it is supposed to be.

9. Talking to a Child. — Here, my little man ! sit
down here. What a good boy you are ! How old are you ?


How big you are for your age ! Do you go to school ?
Yes, I go there every day. But to-day we only had
lessons till noon, because it is Saturday.

10. Talking to a Father. — Is this little boy your
son ?

Yes, he is my eldest

Indeed, you have a fine fellow for an eldest son. What a
a source of happiness he must be to you !

Oh ! no indeed. He is so naughty, I don’t know what
to do.

9, For botchan^ see p. 240. Koto in taiso dkii koto I is used excla-
matorily ; see p. 39. The o oi o kiru-giri is meaningless ; see p. 248.—
10. Such complimentary and Belf-depreciatory speeches ai^ customary,
quite irrespective of facts, and must not be understood too literally.


11. The Telegraph. — Kokoe-ra wa, hempi da kara,
denshin ga nakuie^/ujiyu desUy ne !

Sayb de gozaimasuru. Oi-oi dekimasu de gozaimasho.

12. Speaking Japanese Well. — Anaia wa, yoku
Nihon-go ga o wakari ni narimasii,

Tonda koio osshaimasu. Do sKile I Naka-naka soso de

lya I do Hashtmashiie I Honib ni rippa de gozamasu,

13. No Thoroughfare. — Ana hashi wa fiishin-chu de,
brai-dome dasb da.

Dbri de, koko ni kari-bashi ga kakaite imasu.

14. Compliments on meeting a Friend. — Konaida wa
tochu de hanahada shikkei.

Je ! do itashimashtie I watakushi koso, Shikashi, are kara
dochira ye irasshaimasMia ? .

15. A Message. — Sakki no isukai iva, mada kaetie konai
ka ? Nani wo shile ini ka P Taisb tenia ga toreru.

Okaia saki sama ga rusu de, maiie de mo orimasu n de

12. Lit. “As for you, Japan language becomes well to honourable
understanding.” — 13. De, see ^f 200. Daso is the ” adjective of pro-
bability ” of day ** to be.” Don de=^’ lieing reasonable,” here ” that is
why.” — 14. These and similar complimentary speeches are in constant
use, and do not sound absurd in Japanese, though the faults npologised
for on both sides are generally quite imaginary. After shikkei supply
itashimashlta. After koso supply de gozaimashUa. Apropos the sentence


11. The Telegraph. — It is inconvenient — isn’t it.? —
there being no telegraph in this part of the country, on
account of its being so out-of-the-way.

Yes. But I suppose we shall have it in time.

12. Speaking Japanese Well. — You speak Japanese

Nonsense ! How can you say such a thing ? My Japa-
nese is very poor indeed.

Not a bit of it. How can you say so ? You really speak

13. No Thoroughfare. — It seems that the thorough-
fare is closed, because the bridge over there is undergoing

Ah yes ! That is why they have put up a temporary
bridge here.

14. Compliments on Meeting a Friend. — I beg your
pardon for having been so rude to you in the street the other

Oh ! no, not at all ! It was I who was rude. Where did
you go after we parted ?

15. A Message. — Hasn’t the messenger whom I sent
some time ago, come back yet ? What is he doing ? He
is a tremendous time about it.

Probably it is because the gentleman you sent him to is
out, so that the messenger is kept waiting.

beginning Shlkashiy notice that such questions as to where one has been
or is about to go are not considered indiscreet by the Japanese, but are,
on the contrary, used in the best society. — 15. Sakki is emphatic for
saki; conf. ^ 25, p. 18. Toreru is the intransitive corresponding to
the transitive verb torn, “to take;*’ conf. p. 206. SaH soma “the
gentleman in front,” i.e. ” the gentleman over there.” For ti see
bottom of p. 79.


1 6. Feeling Unwell. — Kyb no shukwai ni wa, tras-
shaimasen deshiia ka P

He! J^o wa, nan da ka^ kokoro-mochi ga zvarukii/e ikemasen
kara, koiowariwo Hie yarimasKUa.

17. On Board Ship. — Kyb wa, yoi nagi de gozaimasu^

So de gozamasu. Go doyo ni shi-awase de gozaimasu,
Anaia way Kobe ye tde de gozamasu ka P
le, Nagasaki made mairimasu,

Ikaga de gozaimasu P Kitsuenjb de ip-pukii itashimashb

Sal iomo itashimashb,

18. A Picnic. — Kyb wa, ii hiyori da kara^ undo kala-
gaia Ojigoku wo mite kimasu kara, nani ka mi-isukurotte,
bentb zvo san-nin-mae isoide koshiraeie kudasai.

He f shbchi itashimashita. Go shu wa, nani-nani wo
motasemashb P

Sake wa, hiiru ip-pon to, fusuke ip-pon ni, sbda-mizu ni-hon

He! kashikomarimashtta*

19. A Visitor. — Ima mieia kyaku wa, mada gozen-mae
dasb da kara, nan de mo ari-awase-mono de gohan zvo dashtte

He I shbchi itashimashita,

16. Warukute ikemasen, fairly lit. ” being so bad, that it is no go ; ”
more simply “it is too bad.” Similarly idkuie ikemasen, “it is
too far;” kutabireie ikemasen, “I am too tired,” etc.; conf. f 2i8,
pp. 147-8. — 17. For the objective honorifics in go ddyd and iomo, see
p. 247. — 18. Ojigoku (” Big Hell “) is the name of a valley near Mi-
yanoshXta containing] some boiling sulphur-sprmgs. It is also called


16. Feeling Unwell. — Didn’t you go to the meeting
to-day ?

No. I don’t know what it is, but I feel unwell ; so I sent
an excuse.

1 7. On Board Ship. — It is beautifully calm to-day, isn’t

Yes, indeed. It is lucky for all of us.
Are you going to Kobe ?
No. I am going on to Nagasaki.

What do you say to our going and having a pipe in the
smoking-room ?
All right, come along !

1 8. A Picnic — ^As it is fine weather to-day, we are going
to Ojigoku for the sake of a little exercise. So please make
haste, and put up something or other as luncheon for

All right. Sir. What liquors shall I send ?
Liquors ? — A bottle of beer, a bottle of whisky, and two
bottles of soda-water, will be enough.
All right. Sir.

19. A Visitor. — It would seem that the visitor who has
just arrived has not dined yet. So please give him some-
thing to eat. Anything that happens to be ready will do.

All right. Sir.

Owaki’danif i.e., ” the Valley of the Great Boiling.” Undo kaiagaia,
more lit. ” at the same time as exercise.” Mite kintasu : conf. kuru,
p. 193. Go shu is Chinese for the Japanese sake, and sounds more
polite. Ftisuke is the nearest approach most Japanese can make to the
pronunciation of our word ” whisky.’* Kashikomarimashtta, or shochi
itashimasJnta^ as immediately above, is the usual term by which an
inferior expresses that he has understood the orders of a superior.


20. Asking the Way. — Moshil Hahuhuisukwan wa^
dono hen desu ka P

Sayb de gozaimasu. Sore wa, koko wo massugu ni iku to,
migi no ho ga junsa no kohansho de, hidari no ho ga Haku-
buisukwan desu. Mon ni ‘* Hakuhuisukwan ” to kaita gaku ga
ageie artmasu kara^ jiki shiremasu.

Kore wa, dbmo ! arigaib zonjimasu.

21. Compliments on first Meeting. — Hajimeniashiie
‘a/oi is here equivalent to a gerund, because
correlated with the gerund tsukete immediately below: conf. p. 178,
If 278, and p. 264. — 6. Observe how the sentence is rounded off by
kaeraremashtta (honorific potential for kaerimashtta ; conf. 403,
p. 250. Further examples of such honorific potentials are ofiered
below by kikaremasJiita, iwaremasfnta, and mosaremashitd). Hiro-
waseta alone would sound bald to Japanese ears, which generally
expect to have the whole action related down to its very end ; conf.
^ 302, p. 197.


kaiiariy Kito wo yatottari shiie, nyuhi ga
notv-buying, people (accus.) now-fiiring doing, expense (tiam.)

taiso kakallaro. Kore koso Ichi-mon oshimi

great-deal hai-prdb€tbly-c08t. 27ii« indeed oiie’cas/t grudging
no hyaku shirazu’ da” to iiia so desu,
‘8 hundred ignores is” iluU said appearance is.

Sore WO Fujitsuna ga hikaremashVe, ‘ ‘ So

Tliat tvoman as^for, twenty-years. Just hcdf-

ckigai no toki ni naru” to moshi-waiasaremashUa

difference ‘s time to becomes’* that deigned-‘to-speaJe-acfose

kara, so-ho osore-itie sagarimashtta,

becattse, both’sides foaring^enterlng descended.

yHsu ni omoshiroi sabaki desu.

Truth in, amusing hojaowral^ jttdgment is.


The judge, having sent for both parties, asked the
girFs father what was his reason for breaking oif an
engagement to which he had once agreed. The father
replied: ”You see, my lord, the matter stands thus.
The match-maker told too outrageous a falsehood,
there being a difference of no less than twenty years
between a bridegroom of five-and-thirty and a bride of
fifteen. That is why I said I could not consent I
would give him my daughter, if their ages differed at
most by half.”

Then the judge gave judgment as follows : *’ As that
is how matters stand, I will decide in accordance with
your desire. Do you give him your daughter five years
hence. The bridegroom, on his side also, must faithfully
wait till then. By that time he will be forty, and the
girl twenty. It will be the time when their ages will
differ exactly by half.” — Thus was judgment given, and
both parties lefl the judgment-hall with deep respect.

Truly it was a witty decision.

HteraUy “it having come to calling forth both sides.”— 5. Observe
the total absence of honorifics in the judge^s address to the litigant
parties, who are of course immeasurably his inferiors. — 6. Lit “in
his deigning (honorific potential) to give jadgment,” the verb becoming
a sort of noon capaUe of taking postpositions after it— 7. Tsukawasu
(the final u becoming short before kara, as in the case of ifasu a few
Hnes higher up) is here a sort of auxiliary, s=^<ir«/ see p, 196.



“/;;« no hoeru ioM, tora io iu ji wo te ni katie nigttie
orebuy hoen *’ to omae ni kitie, tonda me ni atia,

Hoho ! do shite ?

Yube, yo fuheie kara kaeru io, kame ga tmn-zmn /a
hoe-kakaru yue, nigiiia ie wo dashilara, kore! konna ni

Fii! Sore wa, mada Nihon no ji wo shiran kame

3|C 3|C ?|C 9|C 3|C 9|Q

Nihon-moji wo dashiie yometi* mono wa, kame hakari
de mo arumai.

1[ 454. SAKE NO YUME.

Sake-zuki ga aru hi /uisuka-yoi de zuisit ga shimasu^
kara, hachi-maki wo shi-nagara neie iru to, yume ni
sake wo hiio-taru hiroite, o-yorokohi de, noman^ saki kara
shiia-uchi sJnie^ *^Kanro/ kanro I koiisu hiroi-mono waf*

Notes to ^ 453.-1. This and the four following anecdotes are takeil,
with slight alterations to make the phraseology more colloquial, from
the ^^Jogaku Soshi” or “Ladies* Journal of Education.” For kanie^
see p. 26. The idea at the bottom of this story as to the magic power of
the Chinese character J^, ” tiger,” is one commonly held by the lower
classes. — 2. Different nominatives must be supplied to the two verbs
dashiie zxvlyomen; for it is one person who is supposed to show (lit.
put forth) the character, and another who cannot read it when so shown.



You told me that when a dog barked at one, he would
leave off doing- so if one wrote the Chinese character for
“tiger” on the palm of one’s hand, and kept one’s fist
clenched. Well ! I have had a rough time of it for having
listened to you. •

Indeed ! How so ?

A European dog began barking and flying at me
as I was coming home late last night. So I stuck my
clenched fist out towards him, and just look how I got
bitten !

Oh ! Then probably it was a dog who had not yet
learnt Japanese writing.

Dogs are doubtless not the only creatures incapable of
reading Japanese writing when shown it.


Once upon a time a toper, feeling headachy on the day
after a spree, had fallen asleep with a towel wrapped
round his head*. Then he dreamt that he had found a
cask of liquor, which caused him so much joy that he
licked his chops before tasting it, and said : “How deli-

NoTES TO f 454.— I. See f 357, p. 227.-2. To help to cure the
headache. — 3. For the negative noman^ instead of the positive, see
bottom of p. 271. — 4. Lit. “as for this fellow, the pick-up-thing,”
freely rendered by ” Here’s a find !” the tva being exclamatory in this
case ; see ^ 123, p. 87. — 5. Lit. ** as for having come as liquor,” meant to


Ketsaisu-sho ye iodokeru no ga aiarimae da ga, — sake to
kite wa^^ mi-nogasenai. Mazu ip-pai yarahaso ka P —
lya I onajikuMy han wo shtie nomu ho ga iV* to Uie^ kan
wo tsukeyo to suru iokiy ju-ni-ji no don no oio ni odoroile,
vie ga sameniashita kara, zannen-gaite : ‘* Aa / hayaku
hiya de nomeha yokaita / ”


Wakai oioko ga ftitari Fukiya-cho no Eri-zen^ no
mise-saki de iki-aimashila iokoro ga, KUori wa awaia-
dashiku ie wo fuUe, * * Kimi ni wa iro-iro hanashi mo
arimasu ga, — ima kyuyo^ ga dekile, kitaku suru Iokoro
desu^ kara, izure kinjiisu tazune moshimashb” to iu to, —
domo sono yosu ga hen da kara, hitori wa odoroUe^
‘^ Kyuyb to wa,^ go hybnin de mo aru n’* desu ka P” to
kikimashitara, — hitori zva, warai-nagara : ^^ Ie ! kanai ni
tanomareta hayari no han-eri wo ima kono mise de kai-
mashita ga, — ‘ tochu de temadotte iru uchi ni ryuko-okure
ni naru to, taihen desu kara, iachi-banashi mo kotowari
moshimashita no saf”

convey the meaning of ” a windfall of liquor,” this Japanese idiom being
used of unexpected events. — 6. Lit. ” if it is the same de arb to no hybban de
gozaimasu ga, — oskii koto ni wa, nanibun mumei de,
zannen de gozaimasu,”

Samurai : ” Go teishu ya I Kore wa dono kurai suru, nar^*

Teishu: **Heif Arigatb gozaimasu, O kake-ne wa
mbshi-agemasen ga, — tadaima mo mbshi-agemasMta
tori, mei sae gozainiasureba, tabun no ne-uchi mo
gozaimasu ga, — mumei no tokoro de, km ju-mai de gosai-

6. Bizen is the name of a province in Central Japan, famoas for its
swords. —


“Mine host! That sword over there with the iron
guard to the dark-coloured hilt, — I don’t know whether
the braid is black or dark blue, — looks like a good one.
Just let me have a look at it ”

”AH right, Sir,” said the shopkeeper. Tm going to do what I want
with him ; so be good enough to hand him over to me. ”

“You see. Sir,” replied the samurai, “that he is too
stupid to know what he is doing. He is no better than
a dog. So do pray be kind enough to pardon him. ”

“Well I that’s good ! ” retorted the drunkard. “I never
heard of that sort of thing before. Is it etiquette for a
samurai to go out walking with a dog for a retainer ? If
he is no better than a dog, I’ll take charge of him and
poison him with strychnine. You may apologise as you
like, I won’t take your apologies. Gracious goodness 1
If a master wanted to apologise for his servant’s insolence,
the natural thing for him to do would be to put both
hands on the ground, and to express his regret over and
over again, apologising and striking the earth with his
head. But what do you do ? While you are apologising,
you are busy with one hand loosening your sword for
use, — pretty manners indeed for a samurai I What do
you mean ? Is it your intention to kill me, you low
knave ? ”

374 botan-d6r5, chap, l

Samurai: ^^lya! kore wa, iemae ga kono katana-ya
de kai’toro to zonjmashtie, tadaima kanagu wo mite tma-
shiia tokoro ye, kono sawagi ni tori-aezu makari-demashiia
no de… ”

Yopparai : **Ei! sore u*a, kau to mo kazvan io mo^
anaia no go kattc da”^^” io nonoshiru no zvo, — samurai wa
skikiri ni sono suikyo uv nadameie iru io, — ”

Orai no hito-Uio iva, * * Sorya ! kenktva da ! ahunai zo I **
— *’ Nani P kenkwa da io, e ?” — ^^ So sa! aUe wa samurai
da.*’ — ** Sore zva kennon da!*’ io iu io, — maia KUori ga :
”Nan de gesu, ne P” — ‘* Sayo sal kaiana wo kau io ka,
kawanai io ka no machigai dasb desu. Ano yopparaiie iru
samurai ga hajime ni kaiana ni ne wo isukeia ga, iakakuie
kawarenai de iru iokoro ye, — koichi no tvakai samurai ga
maia sono kaiana ni ne ivo isukeia iokoro kara, yopparai
wa okori’dashtie, * Ore ga kab io shiia mono wo, ore ni
husaia de ne wo isukeia* io ka, nan io ka no machigai-
rashii” io ieba, — maia hiiori : ” Nani sa! so ja arimasen
yo! Are wa inu no macJiigai da, ne! ^ Ore no uchi no
inu ni machin wo kuwaseia kara, sono kdwari no inu
wo waiase, Maia machin wo kuwaseie korosb* io ka iu
no desu ga, — inu no machigai wa, mukashi kara yoku

1 1. Here the drunkard uses honorifics, but ironically.

12. Observe the incorporation into one gigantic sentence of all
the varioQS dialogues of the bystanders, fix)m here to the end of


*’By no means,” replied the samurai. ‘* It is only that
I had thought of purchasing this sword of the dealer here,
and was just inspecting the metal- work, when all of a
sudden I got in for this row, and ”

”Oh!” laughed the drunkard, “whether you buy the
sword or don’t buy the sword, that’s your affair ; ” — where-
upon, as the samurai continued to endeavour to appease his
drunken frenzy, the passers-by put in their word, saying :

‘* Look out ! there’s a quarrel ! take care ! ”

‘ * What ? you say there’s a quarrel ? ”

* * Yes ; the parties to it are samurai, ”

”That’s a bad look out.”
Then, as another asked what it was, somebody replied :

“Well, you see, it appears it’s a misunderstanding
about the purchase of a sword. That drunken samurai
there first priced the sword, and was just refusing to buy
it on account of its being too dear, when the younger
samurai here came up and also priced it This angered
the drunkard, who found fault with him for pricing,
without reference to him, an article which he himself had
been intending to buy. That’s more or less what the
misunderstanding sprang from. ”

But another broke in, saying, “Oh dear no ! that’s not
it at all. The misunderstanding is about a dog. One of
the two said to the other: ‘As you killed my dog with
strychnine, you must give me yours in return, and let me
poison it with strychnine too. Disputes about dogs have
always been common ; for you know how, in Shirai”

the paragraph on p. 378, and conf. ^^ 442-4.

13. The touching story of Shirai Gompachi and of his lady-love,
Komurasaki, is to be found in Mitford’s ” Tales of Old Japan,” Vol. I.,
p. 35 ei seq.


arimasu yo I Shirai Gompachi mido mo, yahari inu no
kenhva kara anna sddo ni naita no desti Jtara, ne/*’ to
iu to, — mata soda ni iru htto ga : *^ Nani sat sonna wake
ja nau Ano futari 7va oji oi no aida-gara de, ana makka
ni yopparatte iru no iva oji san de, wakai kirei na htto
ga oi daso da, Oi ga oji ni kozukai-zeni ivo kurenai to
iu tokoro kara no kenkiva da ” to ieba, — maia soda ni iru
htto wa : *^Nani/ are wa kinchaku-kiri da,’* nado to, —
orai no htio-hito wa iro-iro ?to hyohan wo shite iru uchi
niy hitori no otoko ga jnoshimasu ni wa : ^^ Ano yopparai
wa, Maruyama Hommyoji naka-yashiki^^ ni sumu htto de,
moto wa Koide Sama no go kerai de aiia ga, — mimochi
ga warukute, shu-shoku ni fukeri, ori-ori wa suppa-nuki
nado shite htto wo odokashi, ranibo zvo hataraiie shichu
wo bgyo shi, aru toki wa rybri-ya ye agari-komi, jubun
sake sakana de hara wo /ukurashita ageku ni, ^ Kanjo wa,
Hommyoji naka-yashiki ye tori ni koil* to, bhei ni kui-taoshi
nomi’taoshiie aruku Kurokawa Kbzb to iu waru-zamurai desu
kara, ioshi no wakai ho wa vii-komareie, tsumari sake de
mo kawaserareru no deshb yo,” — ”^S*^ desu ka P Nami-
taitei no mono nara, kiile shiinaimasu ga, — ano luakai

14. Each of the larger daitnyds usually possessed three mansions in
Yedo, respectively distinguished by the titles of kanii or ” upper,” tiaka
or ” middle,” and shimo or “lower.”


Gompachi’s case, too, it was a quarrel about a dog which
grew into all that trouble. ”

*’0h dear no!” said another onlooker at the side of
him who had just been speaking, ”that’s not it in the
least. It seems that the two samurai are relations, —
one the uncle, the other his nephew. It is the drunkard
with the scarlet face that is the uncle, and the handsome
young fellow that is the nephew. The quarrel between
them arose from the nephew’s refusing to give his uncle
some pocket-money.”

But another man, standing by, said “Oh! no, he is a
pickpocket ”

And then, among the various comments which were
made by the passers-by, one man delivered himself of
the information that the drunkard was a swashbuckler of
a samurai called Kurokawa K5z6, who was living in the
middle mansion of Hommyoji at Maruyama, and who
had originally been a retainer of my lord Koide,
but who, being ill-behaved, had sunk into debauchery,
used often to frighten folks by drawing his sword at
random, and used to roam through the streets in a
violent and disorderly manner, sometimes forcing his
way into eating-houses, and then, when he had had
his fill of victuals and drink, telling the eating-house-
keeper to come for payment to the middle mansion of
Hommyoji, thus ruining people by his violence and
riotous living, so that the present row would doubt-
less end in the younger samurai getting bullied into
treating him to liquor.

” Oh ! is that it .?” said a voice. ”Any average man would
cut the ruffian down. But I suppose the young samurai
won’t be able to do so, — will he ? — for he looks weakly.”


hb way domo hybshin no yb da kara, kiremai, nef” —
^’ Nanil Are iva, kenjuisu wo shiranai no darb. Samurai
ga ken/uisu wo shiranakereba^ koshi-nuke da” nado to
sasayaku koe ga chira-chira wakai samurai no mimi ni
hairu kara, guilo komi-agey kampeki ni sawarimashtia to
mieie, kao ga makka ni nari, ao-suji wo iateie^ isume-yori,

Samurai : ^* Kore hodo made ni o wahi wo mbshtie mo,
go kamben nasaimasen ka ? *’

Yopparai : ^^Kudoi! Mireha, rippa na o samurai^ —
go jiBsan ka, izure no go hanchu ka wa shiranai ga, —
o-ha uchi-karashita rbninf” to anadori ; ^^ Shitsurei shi-
gokuf lyo-iyo kamben ga naranakereba, db suru ka?^* to
iite^ katio tan wo waka-zamurai no kao ni haki-tsukemashifa
kara, sasuga ni kamben-zuyoi waka-zamurai mo, korae-
kirenaku narimashiia to miete, ^^Onorel shtta kara dereba
tsuke-agari, masu-masu tsunoru bari bbkb, bushi taru mono
no kao ni tan wo haki-tsukeru to way /u-todoki na yatsul^^
Kamben ga dekinakereba, kb suru” to ii-nagara, ima katana-
ya de mite ita Bizen-mono no tsuka ni te wo kakeru ga
hayai kay surari to hiki-nuki, yopparai no hana no saki
ye pikatto dashtta karay kembutsu iva odoroki-awatCy yoivasb
na otoko da karay mada hikko-nuki wa shimai to omoita
no ni, pika-pika to shtta kara, ** Soraf nuitaf” to, ko no
ha ga kaze ni chiru yb ni, shi-hb hap-pb ni bara-baru to

15. A subjectless and highly irregular sentence, lit. ” You ! when I
come out from underneath (i.e., am condliating), you are puffed up
with pride ; — abuse and violence accumulating more and more ;— as


“Don’t you believe it!” whispered another. “It must
be because he doesn’t know how to use a sword. A samurat
who doesn’t know how to use a sword is a coward. ”

And the buzz of these whispered insinuations found its
way to the young samurai’s ears, and he flared up,
and, evidently flying into a passion, his face became
scarlet, and the blue veins stood out on his forehead,
and he drew close to the drunken wretch, and said :

“Will you not excuse my retainer, even after all the
apologies I have offered.?”

“You wordy idiot!” laughed the other. “To look
at you, you are a mighty fine gentleman, of whom one
might suppose that he either was one of the Shogun’s
great vassals, or else belonged to one of the clans. But
you are a shabby, disreputable vagrant. Nothing could
be ruder than your conduct. I am less than ever disposed
to excuse you ; — and now what will you do ?” and with
these words he spat in the young samurai’s face.

This was too much for the patience even of one so
long-suffering as the younger man. “Impudent wretch
that you are!” cried he, “to presume thus upon my
forbearance, to continue getting more and more abusive
and violent, and actually to spit in a gentleman’s face !
As you won’t accept apologies, here’s what I’ll do to you !”
And with these words, and almost before he could be seen
to have placed his hand on the hilt of the sword which
he had just been inspecting in the shop, he out with it and
flashed it in the drunkard’s face. Thereupon the by-
standers took fright “Oh! he has drawn his sword!”
cried they, as they saw it flash in the hands of him, who,

for your spittiog saliva into the face of a person who is ijaru^ for to
aru) a warrior, what an impudent fellow I ”

380 botan-d5ro, chap. I.

ntgemashil€t machi-machi no kido wo ioji, roji wo shime’
kirij akindo wa mina to wo shimeru sawagi de, machi-ndka
wa hissori to narimashtia ga, — Fuji-Shin no ieishu hiiori
wa nige-ha wo ushinai, isukunen to shUCy mise’Saki ni
suwaite orimashtia.

Sate Kurokawa Kozo way yopparaiie wa orimasuredo^
Nama-yoi honsho tagawazu** de^ ano waka-zamurai no
kemmaku ni osoremashitey hyorotsuki-nagara ni-jU-ashi bakari
nigC’dasu no wo, — samurai wa : ** Onore kuchi hodo de
mo nai, Bushi no aiie ni ushiro wo miser u to wa, htkyo
na yatsuf Kaerel kaere/” to, setta-baki de ato wo okkake-
masu to, — Kozo wa mohaya kanawan to omoimasKitey hyoro-
tsuku ashi wo fumi-shimetey kaiana no tsuka ni te wo kakete^
konata wo furi-muku iokoro wo, — waka-zamurai wa ‘ * Ei! ”
to hitO’kpe, kata»saki fukaku buttsuri to kiri-komu io^ —
kirarete, Kozo wa, *^A!” tto^”^ sakebi, kata-hiza wo tsuku
tokoro wo noshi-kakatte, ** Ei/” to hidari no kaia yorimuna-
moto ye ktri-tsukemashita kara, hasu ni mitsu ni kirarete
shimaimashita, Waka-zamurai wa sugu to rippa ni todonie
wo sashite, cki-gatana wo furui-nagara, Fuji- Shin no mise-
saki ye tachi-kaerimashita ga, — moto yori kiri-korosu ryoken de
gozaimashtta kara, chitto mo dosuru keshiki mo naku, waga
gero ni mukatte :

Samurai: ”Kore! Tosukel sono tensui-oke no mizu
wo kono katana ni kakerof” to ii-tsukemasu to, —

16. A proverb. Classical iagawazuisCoWoq. chigawanai.

17, Pronounce aiio as a single word, tto standing by emphasis for
tOy the postposition ; conf. bottom p. 82.


taking liiiu for a weakling, they had imagined would not
draw. And then, like leaves scattered by the wind, off they
fled helter-skelter in every direction ; and the ward-doors
were made fast, and the barriers of every lane were closed,
and the shop-keepers all shut up their shops, so that the
whole street was deserted, the old sword-dealer alone con-
tinuing to sit listlessly in his shop-front, simply because
he was too much dazed to run away.

Well, drunk as Kurokawa Kozo was, he, — on the principle
that ‘ a tipsy man follows his natural bent,’ — scared at the
rage that was painted on the young samurai’s face, tried
to escape, and had gone some twenty paces with a stag-
gering gait, when* his antagonist pursued him with his
sandals on and cried out, ”Wretch! your conduct does
not bear out your insolent words. You are a coward,
you are, for showing your back to a gentleman whom
you are disputing with. Come back ! come back ! ”

Then Kozo seeing it was no longer any good,
steadied himself on his staggering legs, put his hand on
the hilt of his sword, and was turning to face the young
samurai, when the latter, with the single exclamation
” Ha 1 ‘* slashed deep into his shoulder, cutting him down,
so that the man fell on to one knee with a cry, when his
opponent, springing on him again, cut at his chest in such
wise that he fell sliced obliquely into three pieces. The
young sainurai then dexterously gave him the coup-
de-giace, and returned to the sword-shop, shaking the
blood from off his blade. As he had from the beginning
intended to cut the swashbuckler down, he was not flurried
in the slightest, but turned to his servant, and said :

*’ Here, Tosuke 1 pour some water on this sword from


Satzen yori furueU orimashtia Tosuke wa : ^^Hei! ion-
demonai koto ni narimashiia, Moshi kono koto kara Oiono
Sama no namae de mo demasu yd na koto ga gozaimashUe
iva^ ai’Sumimasen, Moto 2va, mina waial^hi kara hajimaUa
koto. Do iiashtiara, yoroshiu gozaimasho ? ”

Samurai : ”lya/ Sayo ni shimpai sum ni wa oyoban.
Shtchu wo sazvagasu rambo-nin, kiri-suieie mo kurushtkunai
yaisu da}^ Shimpai suru-na I ” /^, gerb ivo nagusame-nagara^
yuyu to sKiie^ akke ni iorareie iru Fuji-Shin no teishu
wo yobi :

**Korya/ Go teishu yaf Kono katana wa^ kore hodo
kireyo to wa omoimasen datia ga, naka-naka kiremasu,
Yohodoyoku kireru” to in to, —

Teishu wa, furue-nagara : ** lya ! Anata sama no
ie ga saete oru kara de gozaimasu”

Samurai: *’Iyaf iya! Mattaku hamono ga yoi. Do
da, na ? Shichi-ryb ni-bu ni makete mo yokarb ” to iu kara,
Fuji’ Shin wa kakari-ai wo osorete, ^’ Yoroshiu gozaimasu*’

Samurai: ^*Iya/ Omae no mise ni wa, kesshite mei-
2vaku wa kakemasen, Tomokaku kono koto tvo sugu m
jishimban ni todokenakereba naran, Nafuda wo kaku kara,
chotio suzuri-bako ivo kashiie kurero!” to iwarete mo, teishu
zva jibun no soba ni suzuri-bako no aru no mo me ni tsukazu
ni, /urue-goe de,

18. This sentence excellently illustrates the manner in which Japan-
ese sentences soinetimes fail to hang together logically. The first


that water -tub;” — whereupon Tosuke, who had been
trembling all the while, exclaimed ;

** Oh ! Sir, it has come to a pretty pass. It will be
dreadful if our master, your father, gets his name dragged
through the mud because of this. And I was the cause
of it all. What shall I do .? ”

*’Nay,” said the samurai, to comfort him, “you need

not fret like that. A disorderly fellow who goes about
disturbing all the town ! there is no harm in cutting
down a creature of that sort. Don’t fret about it.” — And
with these words, he called out nonchalantly to the terror-
stricken shop-keeper: “Hal ha! mine host! I never
thought this sword of yours would cut as well as that
But it does cut. It cuts first-rate.”

To which the shop-keeper, trembling the while, made
answer: “Nay! it was because Your Honour’s arm is

“Not at all,” replied the samurai, “The blade is
really a good one. And how now ? I hope you’ll go
down to seven dollars and a half.”

So the sword-dealer, anxious not to get implicated in
the affair, said that it was all right.

“And mind,” continued the samurai, ** that in no case
will I allow your establishment to be put to any in-
convenience on account of what has happened. Of
course I must report the matter at once to the warden of
the ward. Just let me use your writing-box a minute to
write a card.”

clause is, so to speak, suspended in the air, as if followed by wa : — ” (As
for) a disorderly person who disturbs the town-middle, he is a person
whom even catting down is not bad.*’


‘* Kozoyal Suzuri-^ko u*o motie koi/” to yonde mo, —
kamii no mono wa, sakki no saiiigi ni doko ye ka mgeie
shimaiy liiiori mo on’masen kara^ hissori to shiUe, henji ga
nai kara,

Samurai: ** Go teishu! Omae iva sasuga ni go shobai–
gar a dake atk, kono mise 2co chitto mo ugokazu ni gozaru
?< w, kanshin na mono da, na ! ”

Teishu: ** lye, nanil O home de osore-irijiiasu, Saki’-
hodo kara haya-goshi ga nukeie,^* iaienai no de. . . .”

Samurai : ‘ ‘ Suzuri-bako wa, omae no waki ni aru ja
nai ka P ” to twareie^ yoyo kokoro-zuiie, suzun-bako wo samurai
no mae ni sashi-dashimasXi to, — samurai wa suzuri-hako no
fuia IVO hiraiie, fude wo tori, sura-sura to namae wo ” lijima
Heitarb ” to kaki’Ozcari, jishimhan ni todokete oki, Ushigome
no yashtkiye kaeri ni narifnashita.

Kono shimatsu wo go shimpu lijima Heizaemon Sama
ni hanashi ivo mdshi-agemasu to, Heizaemon Sama wa
* ‘ Fbku kitta *’ to ose ga atte, sore kara sugu ni kashira no
Kobayashi Gondaiyit Dono’^ ye todoke ni narimasMta ga,
— sashltaru togame mo ?iaku, kiri-doku kirare-zon to

19. We have freely rendered this clause by ” unable to stir tlirough
fright.” But the popular Japanese idea on the suject is that one of the
lx)nes actually gets put out of joint through fright.

20. Gondayu, here rendered as part of this personage’s name, was
originally a title indicative of a certain rank ; but it came to be used
more or less at will among the samurai class. It is to be supposed
that this Kobayashi Gondayu was an official entrusted with certain


But the shop-keeper, never noticing that the writing-
box was close beside him, called out in a tremulous voice :
”Boyl bring the writing-box!” — a command to whidi
nothing but silence responded; for all the people in the
house had fled none knew whither when the row began,
and tb^e Was no one present

So the samurai exclaimed: “Mine host! I really
admire your courage, — the courage proper in the owner
of a sword-shop, — sitting here in your shop without
moving an inch, notwithstanding this affray. ”

”Nay! Sir,” gasped the tradesman. “Your praise
covers me with confusion. I have been unable to stir
through fright ^ver since the beginning of it, and; ” ..

“Why!” said the samurai, “isn’t the writing-box
there at your side ? ”

These words at last brought the shopman to his senses,
and he pushed the writing-box towards the samurai, who,
lifting off the . lid, took up a pen and quietly wrote his
name, “lijima Heitaro,” then reported the matter to the
warden of the ward, and went home to his lord’s mansion
at Ushigome.

On his relating the whole affair to his fether, lijima
Heizaemon, the lattei: praised him for his manly deed ;
nor was the youttg man specially blamed when. the report
was sent in to their superior, Kobayashi GondayQ. . It
all. simply ended by being sO much the better for .the
slayer, and so much the worse for the slain..

affairs, of the clan to which the Jijimas belonged, and who happened
to be their immediate superior. The title of Dono^ ” Mr.,” thooghrstill
often used in writing, i& rarely if ever beard in actnal speech.

386 BOTAN-D6R5, CHAP. I.

^ 459. DAI NI-KWAI.

Sa/e lijima Heiiarb Soma wa^ o ioshi nhfU-ni no
toki ni Uforu-mono wo ktri-korosXife, ckiUo mo asoreru
keshiJd mo naku, kisho na o ktUa de gotaimas^aia
kara, — ^oski wo toru m 5/ife, masu-masu chie ga
susumvmishtie, sono nocJki go shimpu soma ni naku
nararete, go kaioku wo o isugi asohasht, Heizaemom
to na wo aratame,^ Suido^bak^ no Miyake Sama to
mbs^masU o haiamotc^ kara oJmsama wo o mukae
ni narimashUey — hodo naku go shussho no o nyoshi
wo Tsuyu Sama to moski^age, sUkoburu yoi go kiryo
de, — go ryd$hin wa te no uchi no tama no yd ni
aisKUe, o sodaie ni narimasJnia ga, — sono o aio m
kodomo ga dekimasezu, hUo-tsubu-^ne no koto desu
Aara, nao-sara go hiso ni nasaru uchi, ‘ koin ni seki”
mori nashi’* de, o jbsama wa kotoshi toiie ju-roku m
narare, o ie mo masu-masu go sakan de gozaimaslaia
ga, — ‘miisureda kakuru yo no narai** io iu taioe no
tori, okusama wa sUkoshi no yamai ga moto to natle,
tsui ni naku nari nasaimashtta,

Sono nochi kaji-muki go fufyU no tokoro kara, O
Kuni to iu nochi-zoi wo o mukae ni narimasKUa
ga, — tokaku o jbsama to O Kuni to no aida ga nan
to naku ori-aimasen de, lyima Sama mo kore zoo
mendb ni omoimasJnte, Yanagi^sbima ye dessb wo ko-
‘ ‘ ” ‘ ‘ I- ■ ■-■ ■ II,. — _ —

1. A change of name on some important event was a oommoD
practioe in Old Japan,

2. Le., the bank of the aqueduct in Koishikawa, Yedo.



Now lijima Heitaro, having, at the age of two-and-
twenty, cut down a rufl&an, and being an energetic young
samurai who knew not what fear was, grew wiser and
wiser as he advanced in years. Later on, having lost his
father, he inherited the patrimony and changed his name to
Heizaemon, and then married a wife from the family of a
haiamoto called Miyake residing at Suid6-bata. After a
little while, there was bom to them a daughter, whom they
named O Tsuyu, and who was so beautiful that her
parents doted on her as if they had held a jewel in their
hand. As they had no other children after her, their
only pet, their care for her increased all the more ; and
meanwhile, there being, as the proverb says, “no. barrier-
keeper to keep time back,” the young girl was now in her
sixteenth year, and the family was more prosperous thaa
«ver, when, as an exemplification of the saying that “in
this world what waxeth waneth/’ some ailment, quite
slight at first, attacked the mother and ended by carrying
her off.

Afterwards lijima, finding that the household would
not work smoothly without a mistress, took to himself a
second wife named O Kuni. But somehow or other, the
daughter and O Kuni did not get on well together. This
was a trouble to the master of the house, who thereupon

3. Sec vocabulary.

4. Both j^hese sayings are inherited from the Book Langoa^
Kakuru Is equivalent to Colloquial kakeru, 2nd <X)nJ»

588 botan-dor6| chap. II.

shirae, josama ni O Yone to iu jochu wo tsukeie^
beisu-zumai wo sashtie okimashxta ga, — kore ga lijima
Sama no te no kuzureru hajime de gozamasii.

Sate sono iosht ?no iachi, akuru^ ioshi tva josama
wa jU’Shtchi’Sai ni nari asobashimashiia^

Koko ni haneie lijima Sama ye de-iri no isha
ni Yamamoio Shijo to mbsu mono ga gozaimashUe —
‘jiisu wa iaikO’isha no shaberi de, shonin ia^ke
no lame ni saji wo ie ni ioranai^ io iu jimbuisu de
gozaimasu kara, — nami no isha nara, choilo kami^
ire no naka ni mo gwan-yaku ka ko-gusuri de mo
haitie imasu ga,—kono Shifo ^no kami-ire no naka ni
way iezuma no iane yara, hyaku-manako nado ga
ireie aru gurai na mono de gozaimasu.

Sate kono isha no chikazuki de, Nezu no Shimizu-

dani ni dembaia ya kashi-nagaya wo mochi, sono

– . agari de kurashi wo tateie iru rbnin no Hagiwara

. ..Shinzahurb io mbsu mono ga arimashtie, umare^isuki

‘ Itirei na oloko de, — ioshi zva ni-ju-ichi de gozaimasu

ga, mada nybbb mo moiazu, goku uchiki de gozaimasu *

kara, solo ye mo demasezu, shomotsu bakari mite orimasu

iokoro ve, — aru hi Shijo ga iazuneie mairimasKUe, —

Shijb : ‘ ‘ Kyb wa, ienki ga yoroshiit gozaimasii kara,

Kameido no Gwaryobai’^ ye de-kakeie, sono kaeri

ni boku no chikazuki lijima Heizaemon no bessb ye

: yorimashb.—^ Ie’ sa ? Kimi wa ittai uchiki de iras-

. . shanu kara, fujin ni kokoro^gake nasaimasen ga, —

*’•• ‘ ” ■ ■ ■ ‘■■ ‘ ‘ ■ ■ ■ ■ ‘ I .^. « i I – I III.

5. This is Classical for akeru, 2nd conj., ” to open,” hence ” to

begin,” hence used to signify ” next ” in ** next year.*’
/J , .u -^» : Tlie spoon (with which nsBdicines are mixed) is the physician’s
special emblem;;; vin the free, translation we have used the phrase


tuilt a villa in the neighbourhood of Yanagi-shima, and
sent his daughtier to reside there separately, attended by
a maid called O Yone. And this it was which’ was the
beginning of the downfall of the house of lijima.

Well, that year too passed by, and in the following one
O Tsuyu entered her seventeenth year.

Now there was . a man named Yamamoto Shijo, . wjio
had long been the family physician of the lijimas.. . In
reality he was a chatterbox and. a quack,— one of those
doctors of whom it is said that they write no prescriptions
out of regard for the welfare of their patients, — a man
who carried about in his pocket-book such things as the
wherewithal for conjuring tricks, or else paper-masks for
acting the mimic, instead of the pills 6t powders of AVhich
any ordinary physician has a little store by him. . –

Well, this doctor had a friend^ an unattached samurai
called Hagiwara Shinzaburo, who lived on the income
derived from fields and house property which he owned
at Shimizu-danl in Nezu. He was naturally a handsome
man, still unmarried though already twenty-one years of
age, and so shy that he would not go out, but occupied
himself with nothing but reading.

Shij5 came to call upon him one day, and said :
* ‘ As it is such fine weather to-day, let us go and see the
plum-blossoms at Kameido, and, on our way back, look
in at the villa of a friend of mine, lijima Peizaemon. —
What? you say no? You are altogether so shy, that you

f< writing prescriptions” -a^ oar nearest equivalent to. the^Japanesfe
“taking the spoon in handi”

1, A garden in Tokyo, celebrated for the pictoresque beauty oT- its
fantastic old plum-trees, lit. the ” recumbent dragon plam-tre^.”

390 botan*d5r5, chap. ii.

danshi m ioUe ztw, /iifm no is&ki-ai hodo ianoshimt
na mono wa nai, Ima mioskUa lyima no besso ni
tva, fujin bdkari de.^^ore wa! sore wa! yohodo
heppin no o josama ni shmseisu na jochu to iada
/^lari’gin desu kara, jbdan de mo Hie kimashd.
Honib ni josama miru dake de mo kekko na kurai
de, — ^me mo yoroshii ga, ugoki mo shmai, kuc^i mo
Jtiktmasen. Fujin wa, kucki mo kiku shi, ugoki mo
sMmasii. Tomokaku ki-iamae!*’ io sasoi-dashimashtie,
Juiari-zure de Gwaryobai ye mairiy haeri ni lijima no
besso ye iachi-yorimasKUey —

Shijo : ^^ Go men kudasai! Makoio ni shiharaku !**
io iu koe wo JUkt-ts^ikemashtie, —

O Fbne : ** Donaia sama ? Oya»oya! irasshaimaski!*’
Shijo: ^Korewa! O Yone San! Sono nochi wa,
isui ni nai go busaia iiashimashtia, O josama ni wa
kawari mo gozaimasen ka ? — Sore wa, sore Tva ! kekko,
kekko! Ushigome kara koko ye o htki-uisuri ni nari-
mashtie kara wa, dbmo empo na no de, isui isut
go busaia ni narimasOiie, makoio ni ai-sumimasen,*’

O Ybne : **Ma! anaia hisashitku o mie nasaimasen
kara, do nasaiia ka to omoiie, maido o uwasa too iiashtie
orimashiia, Kyo wa dochira ye ?”

Sliijo : ** Kyo tva Gwaryobai ye ume-mi ni de-kake-

mashtia ga^ — * Ume mireba, hdzu ga nai^* io iu iaioe no

tori, mada mi-tarinai no de^ o niwa no ume wo kaiken
tiashtiaiwie mairimashitia”

8. Shijo is joking. The real saying is Ue ntireba, hozuga nai, “11
one looks upwards, there is no limit,” i.e., *^ there is no limit to the
possibility of aping one’s superiors/’

botan-dor5| chap, il 391

ta^ke no interest in ladies’ society, whereas there is no-
thing so delightful for a man as that society. In the villa
which I have just mentioned there are none but ladies,
and oh I dear me I there are only two of them,— a perfect-
ly lovely young girl and a good-natured maid-servant, so
that we can have some fun. The young lady is really a
treat just simply to look at Doubtless the plum*blos-
soms are beautiful too; but then tiiey don’t move, they
can’t speak, whereas women possess both motion and
speech. Anyhow, please come along I ”

So saying, he led him off, and they went together to
see the plum-blossoms, and then, on the way home, looked
in at lijima’s villa.

“Excuse me!” called out Shijd “Here I am, after
all this long time.”

“Who is it?” answered O Yone. “Oh, really! pray
come in I ”

“Ah! O Yone!” cried Shijo. “It is really an un-
conscionable time since my last visit. I hope the young
lady is quite well. — ^Well, well ! this is splendid. — But
you do live so far off since you moved here from Ushi-
gome, that I have become quite remiss in calling, which
is really too bad of me. ■’

O Yme: “Why ! it’s so long since we last had the
pleasure of seeing you, that we wondered what had
become of you, and have been constantly talking about
you. — ^Where have you been to-day ? ”

Shtjo : “To see the plum-blossoms at Kameido.
But, as the saying is, ‘When one looks at the plum-blos-
soms, there is no end to it’ So we don’t yet feel that we
have seen enough, and have come hoping to get a sight
of the plum-blossoms in your garden.”

3^i B0TAN-D5R5, CHAP. II.

O Tone: *’ Sore waf yoku irasshaimashtia. Mhi
dozo kochira ye o hmri asobase!”* io, — kin’do wo akema^
shtia kara, “Go men kudasai!’* io, mtva-gucki kara
■ $sa$Ntki ye lorimasKia.

O Yone : ” Mh ! ifhpuku meshi^gare ! Kyb wa yoku
irusskiie kudasamasKfa. Fudan zva, walakUshi h o jo-
soma bakan des& kara, samishikutie komaih orimas&
iohoro de gotamasKUaJ* –

Shijo : *’ Kekko na a sumai desfi. Sale, Hagiwara
Uji! Kyb Mmi no go meigin ni osore-irtmas^a,* Nan to
ka mbshimasKUa, “ne, e ?

* Tahako ni wa,

Suri-hi no umashi
Ume no naka’^
deshtia ka, ne /^ Kampuku, kampuku I Boku no yb na
bchaku-mono zva, deru ku mo bckaku de,

‘ Ume homele,

, ha^ ne ?

*’ Kimi no yb ni shoken bakari shtie He nua, ikemasen
yo / Sakki no sake no nokori ga koko ni am kara^ ip-pai
agare^ol Nan desu, — ne ? lya de^ i* Sore de Wa, kUori
-de chodai iiashimashb*’ io ii-nagara, hybian zoo dashi-^

9. Every Japanese of education is supposed to be able to compose
in verse ; bat the so-called verses here given are of course only Shijo’s

^ chaff, invented on the spur <^ the moment. This particular kind of
. ^tanza iis termed hokku, and consists of three Hnes of lespectivelx five^
«even, and five syllables. Japanese prosody knows nx>thing either of
rhyme or of quantity. Con£ f 4^5 ” ‘^f •

10. The words lit. mean ” As for tobacco (-smoking), within the
plum-trees, is delicious of striking-fire/’ i.e., ** How delicious it is to Ifght

B0TAN-D6R6, CHAP. h. 393

O Yone : ” Well, well ! and a good welcome to you ! Oh !
please come in this way ! ” — and so saying, she opened
the wicket, so that the visitors, with a “By your leave,”
passed through the garden entrance into the house.

Yone : ” Oh ! please smoke ! It is exceedingly kind
of you to have come to-day. We are generally very
dull, because there are only the two of us, — my youtig
mistress and’ I. ”

Shijo : . ‘*This is a splendid house. — ;Well, Mr. ,Ha^-
Svafa! I was quite taken aback by that beautiful, stanza
of-yours to*day. What was it again ?
. * To the smoker

How sweet for striking a match
Is the entourage of the plum-blossoms ! ‘
*’That was it, wasn’t it? Admirable! admirable! In
the tase of a viUaiii like me, the verses that come out
of hi3 tiiouth are villainous too. My stanza was :
‘In belauding the plum-blossoms

I got confused.

And belauded a lovely girl instead.’

”I think that was it. — It doesn’t do to be always reading

as you are, — indeeid it doesn’t As we have the remains of

the liquor we took with us on our picnic, just have a glass

of it — What ? you say no ? Well then, I’ll drink alone ; ” —

a pipe among the plom-blossoms ! ‘^ The second and third lines are
inverted. Note the conclusive form of the adjective limasAi, “is
deliciotis,” equivalent to the more genuinely Colloquial umat, and conf.
p, lai. .

II. J^eriia a Classical termination of verbs and adj^tives. TnlCol-

loquial tfte word would be magirakarAtta, Itddo-cMgai, lit. a ”iAistake

of gates,” refers to Shij5’s preferring the house where the young lady

. lives to the celebrated garden with the plum-trees. We have represented

this meaning very, freely in the third line of thiStranslaticMi. *


kakeru iokoro ye, O Yone ga cha to kuoashi wo moUe mairi-

Yone : ” Socha de gozaimasu ga^ o ktioisu mesht–
agar el**

Shijo : ‘*Ddzo mo o kamai kudasaru’ftal Tokt nt ky&
wa jbsama ni o me fd kakariioMtte mairmasJuia. Koka
ni iru no wa, boku no goku shilaskii hqyu desu. Sore zva
so /o, kyo zva miyage mo nani mo jisan tiashimaset^. — E,
he, he/ artgaid gozaimas&. Kore wa, osore^irimashtia, O
kwasht wa yohan, Kekkof Sal Hagvwara Kun, mesht*
agare-yo/** iOi-^

Yone ga kibisho ye yu wo sashi ni Uia aio de, ^^jftisu
ni koko no uchi no o josama zoa, ienha ni nai bijin desu,
Ima ni trassharu kara, goran nasai/*’ to hanashi wo shl£fe
orimasu to, muko no yO’jd^han no ko-zashtki de lijima no
josama, Tsuyu Sama ga, htio-mezurashii kara, shoji wo
sukoshi akeie nozoiie miru to, Shijo no soda ni suwaiie iru
Hagvwara Shinzaburo no oioko-buri to iV, hiio-gara to »**’,
‘ Onna ni sMtara donna daro / ‘ to omou hodo no ii otoko
desu kara, htto-me mimasu to zotio shtte, do shtta kaze no
yuki-mawashi de anna kirei na tonogo ga koko ye kita no ka
to omou to, katto nobosete, makka na kao ni nari, nan to
naku ma ga warukute, pata to shoji wo shime-kitte, uchi ye

12. It is a graceful Japanese custom to bring a present with one
when coming to pay a visit.

13. To ii is often thus used in enumerations. It may be most easily
parsed as equivalent to to itt€ mo, ” whether saying that.”


and with these words, he was just bringing out his
wine-gourd, when O Yone came in with tea and cakes,
«aying :

** It is poor tea, but pray take a cup of it”

“Please don’t take any more trouble about us,” replied
Shijo. “By the way,” continued he, “we have come
here to-day in hopes of seeing your young mistress.
This gentleman here is an extremely intimate friend of
mine. — Oh I by the bye, that reminds me that I have
forgotten to bring you any present to-day. — Oh 1 thank
you ! I am really quite overcome by your kind atten-
tions. — ^The sweetmeats are bean paste. — Delicious I—
Come along, Mr. Hagiwara, do take some. — ^Really,”
continued he, after O Yone had gone to pour some hot
water into the tea-pot, “the young lady of the house is
one who has not her equal for beauty in the world.
She’ll be coming now ; so look at her.”

While he was thus speaking, lijima’s daughter. Miss
O Tsuyu, in the small four and a half mat room opposite,
curious to see the rare visitors, had opened one of the slid-
ing paper doors a little and peeped out; and, as she did
so, her glance fell on Hagiwara Shinzaburo seated at Shi-
j6’s side, — so manly, so distinguished-looking, handsome
to the pitch of making one think what a beautiful woman
he would have made. And she started, and wondered
what stroke of fortune had brought hither so handsome
a fellow. Then, the blood rushing to her cheeks, she be-
came scarlet, and, overcome by a feeling of awkwardness,
shut the paper slide with a click, and retired within it. But,
as she could not see his face when shut up in the room,
she again gently slid the door open, and, while pretending

59^ botan-d6r6, chap, iii

hairimashUa ga, — uchi de zva oioko no kao ga mirarenai
kara, maia sotto shoji wo akete^ niwa no Hme no hana wo
nagameru furi wo shi^nagara, choi-choi to Hagiwara no kao
wo mite zva, hasukashiso ni shoJi no uchi ye hairu ka io
omou to, maia deie kuru, Delari hikkondari, hikkondart
detan mofi-moji shfte irti no wo Shijb ga mi-isukemashtie,

r ‘ Shijo : *^ Hagiwara Kun ! Simi wo o ‘ jdsama ga sakki

‘ kara isHtku^zuku mite imasu, yo I Pme no hana wo miru

/uri Tjoq.sJtiie He mo, me no lama 7va niaru de.koichiwo

mite iru, yo/ Kyb wa, tonto kimi ni kerareta^,^ neT^^-to

: mmsa wo shtte iru tokoro ye^

Gejo no Yone ga dete mairimashtte : ** jdsama kara
* Nam mo gozaimasen ga, Hon no inaka-ryori de ik-kon
‘ . $aski^agemasu, Dozo go yurtiri io meshi^agarimashiie, ai’
kawarazii anaia no go jbdan wo^tikagaiiai* toosshamasuj*

-, Shijb: ‘^Dbmoi osor^’irimashtta,. Kore wa, kore wa!

: o s’uimono I kekkb f arigaib gozaimasiu, Sakki kara rei^

‘ shu wa moite or imasu ga^ o kanshu wa maia kakudeisu,

Arigaib gozaimasU. Dbzo t? jbsama ni mo irassharu yd

ni. Kyb wa ume ja nai, J.Hsu wa, o jbsdma] wo. . .

‘Jya! nani ?** . . – _ ..-. ^ . –


,. to gaze at the plum-blosspms in thiB’ garden, ca^t sly
glances from time to time at Hagiwara’s face. Then
again, apparently overcome with bashfulness, she withdrew
within the sliding door, but had hardly done so

• when once more her face popped out. And so she went- on
fidgeting, — out and in, in and out, which Shijo perceiving
said ;

*’ Mr. Hagiwara ! I say ! the young lady has been
;. staring at you all the time. She may pretend to be
looking at the plum-blossoms; but for all that, her eyes
are turned completely in this direction, — indeed they are.
To-day I have been quite thrown into the shade by
you, eh ? ”

While he was thus chattering away, the maid O Yone
came into the room and said : ‘

“My young mistress bids me say that, though she
has nothing worthy your acceptance, she begs you to
take a glass of wine accompanied by a snack of our
poor rustic fare. She hopes you will take your own
time over it, and give her the benefit of your amusing
conversation, as on previous occasions.”

.^ ‘^’Really,” replied Shij6> ‘*I am confounded by so
jmuch civility. Dear me ! dear me ! Here is soup !
Delicious! Thank you! Cold liquor we already had
with us; but this hot wine of yours iS quite ^A-* special

– »treat. .Many thanks I Please «ask yoiwr young.:. naSateress
jj w.if , sl^c^ too won’t favour us with her company^-,,; It was

– not ^ for.- ihe plum-blossoms that we- cam e , ^ tp^d ay-.- In
.rf ality . it .was the young lady whom . . ..»/Wliy^ !: ,yliat^ is


O Yone; ” H(hho-ho /-^Tadama sayo moshi-agemashSia
ga, tsure no haia wo go zonji ga nai mono des& kara, * Ma
ga warm* to osshaimasli kara, — ^ Sonnara, yoshi asohasef
to mdshi’agemas& to, — ‘ Sore de mo, itte mitai* to osskaima^

Shi;o : ^* lya! kore wa hohu no shin no chikazuki de, chiku–
la no iomo to mosfnte mo yoroshU kurai na mono de, go
enryo m wa oyobmasen, Ddzo chotto josama ni me m
kakaritaJ^ie mairimashtia** to iu to, — O Yone wa yagate o
Josama too isureie mairtmasu to, — josama wa hazukashtso
ni Yone no ushiro ni suwatte, kHM no uchi de ** Shijo San /
zrasshaimashir to iita-giri de, — Yone ga kochira ye kure-
ha, kochira ye iki; achira ye ikeba, achira ye iki; shiju O
Yone no ushiro ni bakari ktdtsuite orimasti to, —

Shijo*, *’Kore wa! horewa! Josama! Som nochi wa,
zonji-nagara go busata itashimashtta. lisu mo kawari mo
gozaimasen de, kekko de gozaimas^, Kono hito wa, boku no
chikazuki de, Hagvwara Shinzaburb to mbshimas^, Doku-^
shin-mono de gozaimasu. Kyb wa hakarazu tsuremas^Ste,
go chisb ni nari, osore-irimasu, Chotto chikazuki ho tame,
sakazukiwo chbdai itasasemashb, — Oya! nan daka ? Kore
de wa, go konrei no sakazuki no yb de gozaimasu”^ — to,
sukoshi mo iogire naku tori-maki wo itashtie ormasH to, —
jbsama wa, hazukashii ga, mata ureshtkute, Hagiwara

14. Notice the force of this final particle no, half exclamatory, half
expressive of helplessness to deal with the situation. See p. 79, % 113.

15. 50^^-drinking is a notable feature of a Japanese wedding.


Yone (laughing) : ** I told her so just now ; but she
said she felt it awkward, because she doesn’t know the
gentleman whom you have brought with you. But when
I thereupon said ‘Then refuse to see him,’ she said ‘But
I do want to see him all the same.”

Shijo ‘*Nay! nay! there is no reason for her to feel
shy. This gentleman is a most intimate friend of mine.
It would hardly be too much to say that we played
about as children together; and we have come with the
most earnest desire to see her just for a minute or two. ”

Afler this speech of Shijo’s, O Yone led in her young
mistress, who was, however, evidently so bashful that,
after whispering a welcome to Shijo from the place
where she sat behind O Yone, she said no more, but
constantly stuck close behind O Yone, edging hither
when O Yone came hither, and edging thither when
O Yone went thither.

“Well! well! Miss O Tsuyu!” cried Shijo, “I know
that I have been an unconscionable time in coming to see
you. It is delightful to find you in the same excellent
health as ever. This gentleman is my Mend, Hagiwara
Shinzaburo. He is a bachelor. Happening to bring him
with me to-day, we have been hospitably feasted, and
are overcome with gratitude. Let me offer you the wine-
cup, just to drink to the making of a new acquaintance. —
Ha! ha! ha! what is this? At this rate, it looks as if
we were celebrating a wedding ! ”

And as he thus went on ceaselessly keeping the ball
rolling, the young lady, though bashful, was glad too,
and, while pretending not to look at Hagiwara Shin-
zaburo, was casting furtive side-glances at him ; and, as an
illustration of the sajdng that “when the intention is ther^

400 B0TAK-DOR5f CHAP.. II.

SAimaburd wo yokome de Jtro-jtro mmai/uri tvo ^hi-nagara
mtie orimasX^ io^ — ^ki ga areba, me mo kScAt kodo ni mono
wo iu* to tu iatoe no tori, Shinzaburd mo jdsama no yoi
kiryb ni mi-ioreie, muchu ni naiie orimasIL So ko suru
uchi ni, yukei ni narimashtia kara,

Shinzaburd: ^^Kore wahc^imeie uhagaimasbSte^ hakarazu-
go chiso ni narimashtia. Mo o iioma iiashimasu, ”

O Tone : *^Anaia/ mada o kayo gozaimas&. Mo sotio go
yururi asohashimase** — io, o Jdsama no kokoro-arige na yosu
wo sasshi, iro-iro io iodomete orimasd io, Shinzaburd mo, koko-
ro no uchi wa omoi too kakeie orimasu ga, tnada seken nare-
masen yue, moji-moji shtfe :

*^ Arigaid zonjimasu, Shikashi yo ni irimasu io, taku no
mono mo anjimasu yue, maia kasanete ukagaimasu* io, koioha
‘■’ wo nokoshtie, iachi-kakemashtia kara,

Shijd : ** Saydnara^*, o iioma mdshimasu, Kyd wa iro^iro

go chisd ni narimashtie, arigaid gozaimasu, Izure kinjitsu, o

rei kaia-gaia, o ukagai mdshimasu, — Sa/ Hagiwara Kun, o

. iomo iiashimasho* io^—^jibun wa kaiie rnireie orimasu kara, O

Yone iojddan H-nagara, genkwa no hdye mairimasXi io,

Yone : ”Shijd San/ Anaia no fsumuri ga iaisd pika-pika
io hikaiie mairimashtia yoT

Shijd: ** Nani sa/ Sore wa, akari de miru kara,

– ” i6.’ Hereusfedhalfinitsoriginalaiidproper senseof «*if thatisso,”
.?MU ap H» newer iense of ** goodbye.” ^


the eyes can say as much as the mouth/ Shinzaburo too,
captivated by the girl’s beauty, felt as if he were in a

Well, what with one thing and another, the evening
was drawing in. So Shinzaburo said :

‘*Many thanks for your kind hospitality on this my
first visit. I think I must now be taking my leave.”

” Oh ! ” cried O Yone, who had guessed her young mis-
tress’s tender passion, and who therefore did her best to
detain the young man, ‘*it is still early. Please don’t
be in such a hurry. ”

Shinzaburo, too, in his heart of hearts, was in love, but as
he was still ignorant of the world, he was embarrassed
and said :

‘*Many thanks. But when it gets dark, my people
will become anxious about me ; so I will call again
another day instead.”

With these parting words, he made to go. So Shi^o
said :

“Well then, we will take our leave. Many thanks
for all your kind hospitality to us to-day. We will cer-
tainly come in a few days to call and thank you. — Come
along, Mr. Hagiwara ! let us go ! ”

And with these words, knowing, as he did, his way
about the house, he went in the direction of the entrance,
joking with O Yone all the while.

*’Mr. Shijo,” said O Yone, ”your head has become
perfectly shining.”

”Nonsense!” retorted Shijo, “you only think i
shines, because you are looking at it under the
light,— ha I ha ! ”

402 botan-d6r6, crap. ii.

htkaru no desu zva, n§/” to^—fiUari wa H wo kikashi, o josama
to Shinsaburo wo ilo ni nokoshiy jbdan-majiri m tro-iro no
hanaskiwo shi^nagara^ sakiye mairimashtia,

Aio ni Shinzahurb wa o josama ni okurare^nagara^ lai^me
no nai no wo sarwai ni, hazukashisa ivo koraeie, kogoe de nani
ka kuchi-yalatsoku wo iiashimasMta kara, O Tsuyu Sama zva
hazukashisd ni :

^^Anatal Sore de wa, maia Mtto o ide kttdasaremasht /
Kite kudasaranakereha, watalmshi wa shinde shimaimasu ye f **
to, — muryo no jo wo fuhinde, omoi’kiile mbshimaskUa,

O Yone: ” Sayonaraf konnichi wa makoio ni o soso
sama, Sayonaral” to, — Shijo, Shinzahurb no ryb-nin wa,
uchi-isure-daiie kaerimashtia.

Sono nochi Shinzahurb iva, o jbsan no koioha ga mimi ni
nokori, shibashi mo wasureru hima wa arimasenandd.


Thus did these two display their tact as they walked on
towards the entrance, talking and joking about all sorts
of subjects, and leaving the young lady of the house and
Shinzaburo behind. Shinzaburo, to whom the young
lady showed the way, was only too glad to find that no
one was by to see. So, overcoming his shyness, he
whispered some vow into O Tsuyu’s ear, thereby making
her look bashful and answer :

“Oh! then, do please come again! If you don’t come,
I shall die, — indeed I ^hall” In this decided manner
did she speak, with infinite love in her words.

“Goodbye!” cried O Yone. “Pi^y excuse the
poorness of our entertainment to-day. Goodbye ! ” — ^and
thereupon Shijo and Shinzaburo went off together.

From that day fc«-ward the young girl’s words remained
in Shinzaburo’s ears, and he never forgot them even for
a moment

1^460. N A Z Er

Eigo no Why, sunawachi naze io iu koio zm, hanahada
iaiselsu de am no ni, Shina ya Nihon no mukasht fw hiio-
hiio wa meiia nihono koioha wo tsukawazu^t ‘^ Koshi no seisu
da ” to ka, ** Moshi no jiron da ” io ka iu ioki wa, mohaya
helsu nisono rikuisu wo sensaku sum koio mo naku, iada gaien
sKiie shimau no ga isurei de art ; soko de nioiie, ” Uiagat
wa hummel shimpo no ichi dai gen-in da” io iu ron mo dekiia
wake de, ima wa yaya mo sureha Seiyo-jin wa * * Uiagai wa
iaiseisu na mono da ; bummei shimpo no gen-in da. Sono shoko
ni wa, Shina-Jin ya Nihon-jin wa, mono-goio wo uiagau io iu
koio wo ‘shinai ni yoiie, iisu made iaiie mo shimpo shinai de
wa ttai kaP” io ronji-iaieru koio de am ga, — ko iu rei fiado ni
htkarem io iu wa, o iagai sama ni^ amari zoiio Hasan shidai io
iwanakereha narimasen.

Uiagai io wa, ion mo naosazu naze io iu koioha no hiisuyb ni
naiie kuru gen-in de, — iaioeha, kodomo nojihun, ‘* Uso Hie wa,
ikenaiyo I ” io ohasan nado ni ii-Mkasarem de arb, Sono ioki

I. This piece is a leading article taken from the columns of one of
the cheaper Tokyo newspapers, the Kcdshin Shitnbun^ several years ago.
It has been retained in this edition, though its point of view is somewhat
antiquated, because of its representatively idiomatic style. Speak thus,
and you will be intelligible to any audience, however uncultivated.


What is termed why in English and naze in our lan-
guage, is a very important thing. Nevertheless, the
Chinese and Japanese of olden times hardly ever used
the word. When told perhaps that such and such was
the doctrine of Confucius or the opinion advocated by
Mencius, they habitually acquiesced without further
enquiry into the rights of the question. Now, therefore,
when the theory has arisen that doubt is one of the great-
est sources of enlightenment and progress, and when, con-
sequently, Europeans are apt to assert the importance of
doubt and its services to the cause of civilisation, and
to prove this their assertion by pointing to the Chinese
and Japanese as instances of nations forever unprogressive,
ON ing to their neglect to subject all things to the scrutiny
of doubt, — when we hear such opinions ventilated, and
find ourselves quoted in such a connection, we all must
agree that it is by no means a pleasant state of affairs.

It is exactly this thing called doubt that causes the
word why to become an indispensable one. Take a child,
for instance. Probably its grandmother or somebody

2. The word naze is little used even now, except in anger. The
circumlocution do iu wake de ? ” for what reason ? ” is generally pre-

3. O tagai sama ni^ “mutually,” “for you and me,” the honorific
o giving a half-polite, half-comical tinge to the expression.

406 NAZE ?

///, ^* Naze uso ICO Hie wn, ivarui no de gozaimasu ka ?”
lo ulagai wo ii-dashiie goranjiro ! — * ‘ Naze daiie /* Sonna koioba
wo kaesii mono de wa arimasen. * Ningen way use wo itla zva,
wanii mono ni kimaiie orimasYi ” to aiama-kabuse* ni ii-lsuke-
rareru ga tsuf et de aro.

Naruhodo I ningen wa, tiso wo Hie wa, zvarui ni kimaiie
oni ni chigai nai ga^ — sono warui rikuisu^ wo shiile gaien
sum no iOy iada bon-yari io gaien sum no to de wa, o9iaJi
gaien suru no de mo, gaien no wake ga iaiso c/ji^au de aro
io zonjimasti. Naze ni kuni ni wa seifu io iu mono ga aru no
ka ? Naze ni jimmin wa sozei wo osameru mono ka ?
Mazu uiagai wo okoshiie, sono rikuisu wo sensaku shiie koso,
hajimeie jiyitseido-ron mo ok’oiie kuru io iu mono de, — iada
rikuisu nashi ni, ** Kuni ni iva sei/u ga aru mono^, jimmin
7S.HI sozei wo osameru mono ” io gaien shiie He wa, shidai ni
hikuisu ni nam bakari de, kesshiie shimpo suru koio wa

Naze tw hiisuyb na no wa, hliori doioku ya seiji nomi ni
kagirazu,^^sono ia, sekai ni arayuru* tnono goio ni wa^ donna
sasai no ien ni Ham made mo, subeie hiisuyb na koio de, —
yoku sekcn no hiiobiio ga ” Gakumon ga iaiseisu da, iaiseisu
da ” io iu ga, — isumari nan no gakumon mo, uiagai wo moio

4. Datte is from da to iite, ** saying that ; ” but it has become a sort
of interjection.

5. De wa arimasen, \i ” is not,” is occasionally thus used in tlie
sense of ” must not.*’

6. Atama-kabuse ni — ” v ith a snub.” The kindred expression
a lama kara kogoio 7vo in is a common phrase for “unreasonable

WHY ? 407

sajs to it: *’Mind you mustn’t tell stories!” Then let
the following doubt be expressed in reply : ** Why is it
wrong to tell stories?” and it will generally happen
that the enquirer will be snubbed with a ” * Why ?’ indeed 1
None of your pert retorts for me ! Every one agrees that
it is wrong for people to tell stories. ”

Yes, indeed ! no doubt every one agrees that it is wrong
to tell stories ; and to acquiesce in this principle with a
knowledge of the reasons why story-telling is wrong, or
to acquiesce in it unintelligently, is equally to acquiesce.
But surely there is a great difference between the two
modes of acquiescence. Why is it that there is what is
termed a government in the country ? Why do the people
have to pay taxes ? It is only by raising such questions
and searching for reasons, that liberal political opinions
get started. When people simply go on unreasoningly,
accepting as ultimate facts the existence of government
and the obJigation to pay the taxes, they merely sink
deeper and deeper into servility, and never make any

Doubt is indispensable, not in morals and in politics
only. It is indisp<ensable in other things also, in every
single thing in the world, down to the very smallest
People often say and repeat that learning is important.
But after all, in no branch of learning is there any frui-tful
course to be pursued, unless we make doubt the founda-


7. Warui rikutsu does not mean *’ a bad reason,” but ” the reason
why it is bad; ” conf. p. 60.

8. Supply da, ” it is (a fact that there is a government, etc.).”

9. Arayuru is an exceptional verbal form derived from aru, “to
be,” and meaning ” all that there are.”

408 NAZE ?

ni shi, naze naze *de moi/e oku no oku made rtkuisu wo
sensaku sum to iu koto ni hoka wa nal Sht-sho Go-fyo^^ m
haite aru mono-goto ni kesshtte machigai wa nai to, iada
rikuisu nashi ni gaten shtie shimaite ita^ hi ni wa, yo no
naka wa Shi-sho Go^fyb inai no yo no naka de owaru no de,
itsu made tatte mo susumu kizukai wa nai ga, — mottomo
** Sore dake de^ takKisan da” to iu ki naraba^ sunian koto
mo arumai keredomo, naze wo mochiite, rikutsu wo sensaku
sMta^* hi niwa, rikutsu kara rikutsu to, shidai ni rikutsu ni hana
ga saki, mi ga nariy kwairaku no shurui ga oku mo dkiku mo
nam to wakari^kitte iru to shite mireha^^j naze uua mochiite
mitai mono de wa nai kaP

Ningen ga hikutsu no kyokuian ni tasshireha, zuibun omoi
mo yoran fuzoku nado ga shojiru mono de, — mugaku no
kyoJmtan^ sunaivacki mono-goto no rikutsu wo shiran to iu
koto no kyokutan mo, zuibun myo na ?nono de,—jii-ku-seiki
no konnichi de moy ydban no shakwai ni iri-konde miru to,
ki’D no senzo no koto ya, mirai no shison no koto nado Tva,
sukoshi mo omowazu ; tada ichi-dai-kiri ni owaru to iu yo
na jinshu ga naka ni wa arimasu. Ina /** ki-b no senzo ya
mirai no shison zva, iu made mo nashi, Hanahadashii no

10. Shi’sho Go’J^o^ ” the Four Books and the Five Canons,” is the
name given to the sacred Classics of China, which form the basis of the
Chinese polity and of the Confucian morality.

1 1 . Substitute the present tense iru, ” to be,” for the past ita in order
to understand this passage. Strange as it may appear, Japanese idiom
always employs the past in such contexts ; conf. f 275, p. 176.

WHY ? 409

tion, and, with a perpetual why^ search for reasons into
every nook and corner of the subject So long as folks
simply acquiesce, without reasoning, in the infallibility of
every word that stands written in the Chinese Classics,
the world will remain a Chinese Classic world, without
a chance of progressing, however many centuries may
roll by. Of course, too, it may be quite possible for those
to exist thus, whose spirit is satisfied with such a state of
things. But when people have once come to a clear under-
standing of how, if they use the word why and search for
reasons, they will go on from reason to reason, so that
the reasons will first bear blossoms and then fruit, and
that more numerous and more intense kinds of happiness
will be attained to, will not why then become a thing
which they will like to try their hand at using ?

When human beings reach the ne plus tdtra of ser-
vility, somewhat unexpected manners and customs are
the result. Somewhat strange, too, are the results of
the ne plus ultra of ignorance, — ^in other words, of a lack
of knowledge of the reasons of things. Penetrate into
savage societies at this very day, in this nineteenth cen-
tury of ours, and you will find among them races that
show an utter disregard both for departed ancestors and
for unborn descendants, — races that live for their
own generation only. Nay ! what need to talk of de-
parted ancestors and of unborn descendants ? Why !

12. Similar remark to the preceding : substitute the present sttru
for the past shtia in order to understand the clause.

13. To shite mireba=da niyottey ” in consequence of which.’*

14. A classical word for ” nay,” used emphatically by contemporary
writers in imitation of English idiom.


ni naiie wa, genzai no qya-ko fyodai no aida-gara ni ^oshi
mo kwankei wo MMe, shin-ai suru no, nan no^^, to iu yd
na koto mo naku, iada jibun is-shin ga do ni ka ko ni ha
romei wo isunagu koto ga dekireba, sore de manzoku shtle
iru to iu jinshti mo ma^^ ni iva arimasu,

Shokunl inu wo mi-iamae, — inu ivo/^’^ E ! IkagA de goza-
ru? Oya-ko-rashiku omowareru wa, chichi wo nomu aida^
zvazuka hdkari no koto de, — chi-banare wo suru to, viohaya
ianin, — otto f^^ mattaku taketi^^ ni naite shimau de wa nai kai^
Shikaraba, ima iu tokoro no yaban-jinshu no gotoki wa,
rwayuru^ * ‘ Kin-ju wo saru koto idkarazu^** no renju de aro,
Oya-ko kyodai yori shite, shidai ni shin-ax wo rin/in ni
oyoboshi, ichi-gun ni oyoboshi, is-shu ni oyobosu no ga aikoku-
shin no genso da keredomo, — genzai 710 oya-ko de sae betsu
ni shin-ai sen to iu yd de Tva, totemo aikokM-shin nado no aro
hazu wa nai,

Shikashi Nihon-jin nado wa, shi-awase to sore hodo mugaku
de mo naku ; shitagatte sod ni aikoku-shin mo aru n da ga,
— sude ni aikoku-shin ga aru naraba, kano naze wa iyo-iyo

15. For no thus used enumeratively or to indicate a sort of pause,
see ^ 115* P- So. Shin-ai sttru no, nan no is, as literally as possible,
” loving or anything-(else-) ing.”

16. Ma ni wa^iama ni wa or naka 7ti wa, ” among the rest.” Ma
originally meant “space,” “room.”

17. The emphatic repetition of the accusative after the verb is rather
common, especially in the mouths of the lower classes.

18. Oito is an interjection, which we have very freely rendered by
” excuse me.”

WHY ? 411

there are among the number, when you get to the very
lowest of them, races of men who pay not the slightest
heed to the ties of kindred, who show no trace of family
affection or of anything of that sort, but who are quite
contented if, by hook or by crook, they can, each on his
own account, scrape together a livelihood.

Gentlemen ! just look at the way dogs live. What is
it like, let me ask ? Is it not true that the fondness be-
tween the piarent and her young endures but for a brief
season, while the puppies are sucking ? Wean them,
and at once they become strangers — excuse me, strange-
curs — to one another. This being so, I take it that
such creatures as the savage races just referred to belong
to the category described as *’ not far removed from the
birds and beasts.” To begin by parental, filial, and frater-
nal love, gradually to extend such kindly feelings to
neighbours, then to all the people of a district, and next to
those of a province is the origin of patriotism. But there
can never be any such thing as patriotism in the absence
of even the love between living parents and children.

However, we Japanese are fortunately not so ignorant
as all that, and accordingly we have a fair share of the
patriotic spirit. But having this patriotic spirit, the wfy
of which I have spoken becomes all the more indispens-

19. Tanin and taken, lit. * other-person ” (or “stranger”) and
** other-dog,” make a sort of pun, which we have endeavoured to render
in the English version by ” strangers ” and ‘* strange curs ” (!)

20. An exceptional verbal form meaning ” what is called,” and
derived from ««, “to say,” like araynru fr ‘m am (see foot-note 9,

lP- 407).

21. This quotation is in the Written Language, where tokarazu is
the ” negative conclusive present ” of the adjective toi, ” far,” and is
equivalent to the Colloquial tdku nai.

412 NAZE ?

hitsuyb ni naite kuru shidai de, — Shi-sho Go-kyo wo rikuisu
nashi ni galen shtie^ Sht-sho Go-kyo inai no yo no naka de
award to omotte mOy kochira wa kore de manzoku shtle mo^
O-Bei shoshu wa manzoku sezu ; shidai ni naze z«w mochi-
He, shin-kwairaku wo shojiru to sureba^, yushoreppai shizen
no ikioi de^ beisu ni 0-Bei-jin ni Nihon wo horohosb to iu
kokorozashi nashi to sum mo, hitori-de ni horobile shimau
karay shiyb ga nai. Nihon bakari, hoka ni kuni wa nai to
iu koto naraba, go chumon-dori^ Shi-sho Go-kyo inai no yo
na naka de iisu made mo irareru keredomOy hoka ni kuni
ga iakusan aiie wa, so wa ikazu ; mendo-kXtsakeredomo, naze
wo mochiiie^ mono^goio no sensaku wo seneba narimasen.

22. To sureha — ‘* if it should come to pass that.”

23. Go chumon-dori, lit. ” according to (your) august orders,” here
used half- jokingly in the sense of ‘* if you please.” This half-polite

WHY? 413

able. Even should we, acquiescing unreasoningly in
the dicta of the Chinese Classics, think to live on in a
Chinese Classic world, the satisfaction with such a state
of things would be for ourselves alone. None of the
nations of Europe and America will be satisfied with it.
They will go on using the word ivhy, they will go on
inventing new sources of happiness. This granted, there
will be no help for it but that Japan must perish natural-
ly, without the necessity for assuming any special inten-
tion on the part of foreign nations to destroy her, but by
the mere working of the law of the survival of the fittest.
If Japan were the only country in the world, then, gentle-
men, you might continue forever to please yourselves by
living on in a Chinese Classic world. But this plan will
not do when there are so many other countries besides
ours. Troublesome though it be, we are bound to use the
word why^ and to search to the root of everything.

half-joking use of the honorifics is by no means uncommon, and is
used to give many jl sly tap under cover of an apparently polite style
of address. • ^ .



Doiis&’koku no tofu de, Heidelberg to iu iokoro ni, dai-
gakko ga armashXfe, soko ni koioshi hachi-fi-rohn ka shtchi
ni narareru ioshi no yotta sensei ga Miori oraremasfS^.
Kak&shdku^ iaru rbjin de, sono na wo Bunsen to iimashtie^
sono HUo no semmon kara ieha, walttkushi-domo* no nakama
de arimasu ga, — nenrei no choyo^ to, chishiki no tashb kara
moskimasii to, tuare-ware no dai’sensei de arhnasu ga, —
sono Kilo ga seinen no koro, aru beppin^ to kon-in no yakM-
soku ga dekite, nan-gelsu ik-ka ni wa, gozen no Ju-ichi-
ji goro ni, lera ni oiie kon-in no shtki wo okonao to ille,
yakusoku wo shimasKUa ga,—/ujin no ho de wa , rippa na
yosooi wo shile, ” Osoku naru to ikenai ” to itte, ju-ji goro
kara tera ni haitte, Bunsen no kuru no wo matte imashtta
ga,—jU’ichi-ji ni nolle mo, jH-ni-ji ni natte mo, san-ji ni
natte mo, yoji ni natte mo, Bunsen sensei yatte^ konai kara^

I. Shi is book language for « Mr.” Noberaretaru is book language
for noberareta, honorific potential for nobeta ; conf. 403, p. 350. Ni
oite is a somewhat stiff equivalent of ni, ” in.” — 2. Narareru is honori-
fic potential for naru ; orarfntasu is similarly for orimasu. Instead of
saying ” is eighty-six years old,” Japanese idiom prefers to say ” be”
comes eighty-six years old.” — 3. ||jR|» ^ learned Chinese word for
” hale.” The following particle iaru is a^book language form, a con-
traction of to aru, “being (that);” na would here be the true Col-
loquial equivalent. Z?tfs=«* being.” — 4^ A humble term; see top of





At Heidelberg, a town in Germany, there is a univer-
sity, where lives an old professor now eighty-six or seven
years of age. He is a hale old man, and his name is
Bunsen. He and I are colleagues, in the sense that
we are both specialists in the same field. But the
difference of our respective ages and of our talents makes
of me his very humble follower. — Well, this old gentleman,
in his younger days, had engaged himself to a beautiful
girl. It had been settled that the wedding should lake
place at the chuneh at about ekven a’clo€k in the
morning of a certain day in a ceTtftin mjcmth. So the bride,
anxious not to be late, reached the church about ten in
brilliant array, to find, however, that Bunsen had not yet
arrived. Eleven o’clock came, twelve o’clock came, three
o’clock, fbnr o’clock, — still nxir sig^ of the Professor. A

p. 49. Ware-ware, a little lower down, fs Iiumble too. The lecttrrer
and Dr. Bunsen are both chemists.— 5. CTio-yo^^ od young;’ ftcnce
«*age.” Ta’Sho^*’muci litUc,” hence “amount;” conf. f 48, p. 54,
for the ” synthesis of contradictories,” wHich these terms exemplify. —
6. This word is used half-jokingly. Indeed there is a touch of raillery
in all this passage, especially in the bride’s words ” Osoku naru to
ikenaiy — 7. A somewhat slangy substitute for the proper verb, which
would here be df^/tf or miete, Cont yarakaskUe, so often used by the
lowest classes as a substitute for all sorts of verbs. Hhtyatte just below
has its usual sense of *’ sending.”


uchi ye htio zvo yaiie ukagawaseru io, senses wa doko ye iita
ka ? inaiio iu no de,^ fujin no ho de wa taiso hara tvo iaietey
siigti ucfdni haette shimaiia to iu koh,^

Sale Bunsen sensei wa, sono hi no asa kara jikken-shiisu

de chiisa na shaken wo hajimete iia ga, — sono shtken ni

omoshiromi ga tsuiie^ jikan no sugiru no ni mo kokorozukazu,

yagaie tokei wo miru io, gogo no roku-ji de atta kara, hi ga

Isuiie, odoroiie, iera ye Hie miru to, fujin no ho tva, okoiie

kaette shimatia ato de arimasKUa. Soko de, Bunsen sensei no

izvaku^^ : ^* Kon-in io iu mono wa, mendokusai mono da’*

iOy — sore-giri sono go wa kon-in wo sezu ni, konnichi de

?no kakiishaku taru rojin de, musai de orimasu,

” Kore wo miie mo, gahimon no kenfyu no omoshiroi koto
wa wakari ni narimasho.

8. There is not any intention of quoting words actually used.
Iu has here little signification. To iu no ^=*<it being the fact
that…”— 9. Koto is here a sort of expletive. To iu, “it is said
that,” does not require to be represented in the English transla-

N. B. Apropos of these lectures, we take the opportunity to re-

7 mind students of the fundament^ difference between English and ‘

Japanese in the matter of the length and complication of sentences,

brought about by that system of syntactical “integration,’* which we

have explained in ^ 442 — ^4, p. 280 ei seq. No foreigner will


messenger was sent lo the house to make enquiries.
Where was he ? Nowhere to be seen I Thereupon, home
went the bride in a fury.

The fact was that the Professor had instituted some
small experiment in his laboratory on the morning of the
day in question, and had become so deeply interested in
it as to fail to notice the flight of the hours. By and by,
on looking at his watch and finding that it was six o’clock
in the afternoon, he recollected the situation with dismay,
and hurried off to the church to see what could be done.
But the bride had already departed in her wrath. There-
upon, the Professor came to the conclusion that marriage
was a bother. So he remained unmarried from that day
forward, and he still lives on as a hale old man, but wife-

This example may suflSce to show you the attraction
which scientific investigation is capable of exercising.

tion. — ID. JVo iwaku, lit. ” the speech of,” is a Classical equiva-
lent for the Colloquial ga iimashtta, — ii. The original wording of
this last paragraph has beoi slightly altered, to suit the purposes
of the present work.

attain to a good Japanese style, unless he learns how to concatenate his
thoughts into long and complicated periods, just as no Japanese will
express himself clearly in English unless he learns to be short and
simple. The English translation of the above lecture has no less than
eighteen sentences. The Japanese original has but five.



yb no naka m’wa, ‘*me-ah’ sethnm, mekura sen-nir^” to
iu koh ga aru, Tsugo m-sen-nin no uchi, me-aki to mekura
ga sen-nin-zuisu aru to iu no de arimasu ga, — waiakushi zva,
me-aki to mekura wa iotemo hambun-zuisu arb to wa omowanai,
Ni’Sen-nin no uchi ni, sen ku-hyaku ku-ju shtchi-hachi-nin made
wa mekura de, sono ato no ni-san^nin ga me-aki de, — sore
mo me-aki ni naren kurai de aru, Sore-hodo yo no naka ni
iva mekura ga oi. Sore wa hontb no mekura de wa nau
Rigaku tetsugaku ga mekura na no da. Shin ni gakumothjo
kara ieba, sen ku-hyaku ku-ju shtchi-hachi-nin wa mina mekura
de aru. Sore dake ni oi mekura no yo no naka de arebc^^

I. The lecture from which these few ps^es have been extracted
has been reprinted by its learned and eloquent author in pamphlet
form, under the title of ” Toku-iku Hoho An.” Dr. Kato, in granting
the present writer permission to make use of the composition in ques-
tion, suggested that it would be best to take the text of the pamphlet,
as having been touched up, and hence showing a better style. After
some consideration, this advice has been disregarded, it seeming
more interesting, and also probably more profitable from the point of
view of a student of the Colloquial, to print the words exactly as
taken down by the short-hand reporter from the accomplished





The proverb tells us that **for every thousand with
eyes, there are a thousand without.” That is to say that,
out of a total of two thousand persons, there are a thou-
sand who can see and a thousand who cannot In my
opinion, however, the proportion of those who can, to
those who cannot, see is by no means equal. Out of
every two thousand persons, no less than one thousand
nine hundred and ninety-seven or eight are blind, leaving
but two or three with sight, while even those two or three
cannot see properly. Thus enormous, in this world of
ours, is the proportion of blind folks. I do not mean to

say that they are blind physically. They are blind

I « II I II — ^f^^^^

speaker’s lips, and published in the “Journal of the Educational
Society of Japan,*’ No. 68, and also in the •* Taika Rons^^’ No. 7,
the text of which latter ^leriodical has here been followed. The an
of icht’on is lit. “an opinion,” hence “a case,” here rendered “a
point.” — 2. Observe the potential used honorifically. — ^3, For this
proverb, see p. 312, Na 21. Observe, here and elsewhere, how we
anglicise the style by turning the phrase personally (“the proverb
tells us,*’ etc.), and conf. f 44©, P- 279. If all the sentences were left
in^)ersonal as in the Japanese original, the translation would never
read like genuine English,— 4. The conditional mood here has its
original Classical sense of ” since, ” when,” or ” as,** ….,’* not ” if . . . , ;”
conf. p. 184.


mekura wo osamei^ iku dogu io iu mono ga nakereba naran,
Ni’san-nm no me-aki tvo osameru dogu yori uua, sen ku-hyaku
ku’ju shtchi-hachi-nin made aru mekura wo osameru no ga
hiisuyo de aru. Soreyue ni^ waiak&shi wa sen ku-hyaku ku-^u
shtcht-hachi-nm no mekura no fame ni hiisuyd de aru kara,
sono ho no dori kara ieba, TJoataiSUshi wa shukyb to iu mono ga
iaihen s&ki ni naru, Doiisu no ieisugak&’Sha Schopenhauer
io iu hiio no iuta^ koioha ni, ” Shufyd zva hoiaru no yd na
mono’*, Kurai iokoro de nakereba , hlkaru koto ga dekinat^”
io moshimasHUa ga, — waiakushi no kangae ga, ima mbsKUa
tori ni, yo no naka no ni-sen-nin no uchi, sen ku-fyaku ku-ju
shtchi-hachi-nin made wa mekura de aru io sureba^, maru de
yami no sekai de aru, Yami no sekai de areba, hoiaru ga
hikaranakereba narimasen.

Augusie Comie io iu hiio no koioba ni, ** Kono yo no

n aka no susumu zva, shufyo-ieisugaku kara sozo-ieisugaku no

sekai^^; sore kara susunde^ jikken-ieisugaku ni naru ” io iu

koio wo mbshvnasMa ga, — waidlmshino kangae de wa, shukyd

no sekai wo hanareie shimau koto wa yoi ni dekinai, Ippan

no jimmin ga shOfyo no sekai ni iru mono de aru io kangaeru.

. Sd iu yd ni kangaereba, sunawachi shukyd io iu mono zva,

rigaku ya ieisugaku no me kara mireba, makoio ni kuri wo

S. Osameru, ” to pacify,” ” to govern,” hence here ** to guide.” —
6. 2uta is “a westemism,*’ see p. 163. — 7. Supply da, “is.” — 8. Ob-
serve the double negative, used in Japanese to express tiie sense


scientifically and philosophically. One thousand nine
hundred and ninety-seven or eight of them are blind, if re-
garded from the standpoint of the truly educated. Since,
then, this world is one in which the blind so greatly predomi-
nate, we need something wherewith to guide them. Far
more indispensable than the machinery wherewith to guide
the two or three who can see, is that required for the guid-
ance of the one thousand nine hundred and ninety-seven or
eight who cannot Thus does it come about that a con-
sideration of the subject from our present point of view
makes me quite a friend to religion, as the thing need-
ed for the guidance of the one thousand nine hundred and
ninety-seven or eight who cannot see. The German
philosopher Schopenhauer has said : ‘ ‘ Religion is like
a firefly. It can shine only in dark places.” Now, if I am
right in thinking, as I said just now, that out of every two
thousand persons in the world, no fewer than one thousand
nine hundred and ninety-seven or eight cannot see, ours
is indeed a world of total darkness. And if it is so dark
a world, the light of the fireflies must not be dispensed with.

Auguste Comte has said that the stages of the world’s
development are first from the theological order of ideas
to the metaphysical, and thence on to that of the positive
philosophy. But in my opinion it is an infinitely difficult
matter for the world to pass out of the theological stage.
I think that the mass of mankind are in this theological
stage. And to one who thinks thus, religion, though
unacceptable, — indeed unworthy of mention, — from the
scientific or philosophical standpoint, because dealing

which we render by the word ” only.** — 9. To sureba^*’ if one assumes

that ,” hence “if I am (allowed to be) right in thinking that. …”

— 10. Supply ni nari, correlated with ni naru in the next daase.


ioiie, ioru ni iaran, shiga ni kakuru m iarar^^ to iu yd na
mono de aru keredomo, sono uchi sen ku-hyaku ku-ju shtcht-
kachi-nm no mekura no iame ni wa makoio ni hiisuyo nam
mono. Sore da kara, konnichi ippan no iokuiku to iu mono
zm, do shUe mo shufyb de nakereba, yaku ni iatan, Arigaiai
io ka, osoroshii io ka iu Kami Sama^^ to ka, Hotoke Sama to
ka, Jblei io ka iu Honzon Sama ga aiie, sore too iayori ni
shiie, kunio shiie iku oshie de nakereba, ippan no gumai na
sekai ni wa kiki-me ga nai, Rigaku ieisugaku wa kosho na
mono da keredomo^ kore wa gak&sha-shakwai ni hiisuyo na
mono de, sono hoka ni nani ni mo yd wo nasu koto wa dekinai,
Sono hokay ippan no HUo ni zva, shufyo no ho kara defa
iokuiku de nakereha, sUkoshi mo yd wo nasan mono de aro io
iyO’iyo waiak^hi no kangae ja omou.

Sore nareba, shUfyo wa do iu shufyb ga yokarb to iu mondai
ga sono tsugi ni deie kuru. Donna shuk)^ wo mochiiiaraba^ kond
ga aro ka to iu mondai ga deie kuruga^ — wataJ&shiwa shukyo
no/tltkai tokoro wo shir an. DaOai no seishiisu wa, dotoku-tetsii’
gaku kara mireba, shinri ni kanawan mono to minakereba^^ naran,
Kuwashii koto wa shirimasen kara, dono shukyo ga yokaro io
TJoataJmshi ga kesshiie sadameru koto wa dekin, Tada konnichi
made no sekai ni kond no aita tokoro no aio ni tsuiie, jijitsu no
ue yori kangaete mireba^*, Faso-kyo ga ichiban koseki ga aita
yd ni kangaeraruru, Bukkyd no ho wa, iitai no ydsu wo kan-

II. Lit. “not sufficient to place on the teeth,” i.e., ” unworthy of
mention/’ For the negative iaran, ist conj., instead of iarin, 3rd conj.,
. see p. 164. — 12. Kami, though adopted by the Protestant missionaries
to denote tlie Christian God, here has its proper original sense, ie., it
denotes the gods and goddesses of Shintoisnu ydtei, lit. *’ the Supreme
Emperor,” is here the Christian God. For the sake of making a dis-
tinction, we have rendered Kand by ” a deified hero,” that being a feir
approach to the status of many of the gods of Shintoism. Honzon, on-


with gratuitous fancies, — religion, I say, is indispensable for
the sake of the one thousand nine hundred and ninety-seven
or eight who cannot see. For this reason moral culture in
general, inculcate it as you will, is of no avail in our day
unless associated with religion. No system of training will
produce practical results in this universally stupid world
of ours, unless it possess, and use as its lever, some object
of worship either beneficent or redoubtable, be it a deified
hero, a Buddha, or a supreme God. Science and philo-
sophy are sublime things. But they are needed only by the
learned world, beyond the limits of which they are power-
less. I grow daily more fully convinced that, beyond those
limits, among mankind at large, no moral training that
does not start from religion is likely to have the least effect.
Supposing this position granted, there next arise the
questions : — Which religion is probably the best ? Which
religion will probably, if adopted, be most fertile in
results? In the presence of such questions, I feel my
own ignorance of the profounder aspects of religion.
Nevertheless, the general character of religion is known
to me, and this general character must be pronounced to
be in disagreement with truth as deduced from moral
philosophy. My ignorance of details incapacitates me
altogether from deciding which religion is the best. But

ginally a Buddhist term, means lit. ” the chiefly revered,” i.e., ” the
(chief) object of worship.” The many SanuCs here are slightly ironi-
cal. — 13. Miru, “to see,” here and often elsewhere =” to consider,”
** to regard as.”— 14. Lit “If, following after the traces of that which
(Jokoro) has been of effect in the world of till to^ay, and looking, one
considers from the top of facts, one may think (potential kangaeraruru ;
also to be rendered “I am inclined to think*’) in such wise that
Christianity has been of the most deeds.” For hangaerantru^ instead
of kangaerareru, see N.B. to p. 165,


gaeie mireda, ieisHigaku mad$ mo haiUe vru yd d^^^ /ukai dort
made ioUe am* Naka^ttaka YasO’fyd nado no yd na asai mono
de nai, Yohodo hosho na mono de armasH keredomo, ski”
kashi^^ shukyo io shtla kdno de uua^”, Faso-fyo hodo no kono wa
nakaro io kangaemasu, Shtkashi-nagara, mukashi ijoa Buk-
fyo mo kono ga aUa de artmash^^ ga^ — konmchi de zva, kono
ga USUI yd ni kangaeru, Kono Bukkyo no kono no usui no iva,
shukyo ga warui no de naku, shukyo wo fsUkasadoru hUo m
juhun iekiio shila hiio ga iakusan nai lame ni, BukJyo no
kono ga nai no ka mo shiremasen^*. Sore wado da ka shvi-
masen ga, — Faso-kyo wa konmchi Yorofpa ni jubun kono ga
am, Moiiomo, mukashi yori kono ga oioroele iru keredomo,
konnichi de mo zuibun am, Yoroppa de wa, joid-shakzvai de
mo YasO’kyd wo shinzuru^ hxio ga du Yoroppa no ki/ii ya
shisd no dai-bubun wa, Yaso-fyd ga moto ni naile, so shtte sono
kuni no kifu ya shisd ga sore kara umi-dasareie iru. Sore
hodo kdnd no am moncP^, Shtkashi gakusha no seisu de wa,
*’ Shufyo wa kdnd ga nai, Jimmin no kifti ya shisd wo
umi-dasu kdnd wa nai mono de aru ” io iu ga, — waiakushiwa

15. Ijt. ” being – are :

I. Its lines of five syllables and seven syllables. This is
the basis on which all the existing varieties of the stanza
are raised.

II. Its extreme shortness, — three, four, or five lines
constituting an entire poem.

III. The terseness of the style, the poetical sentence
often having no verb and being in fact rather an exclama-
tion than an assertion. These liliputian poems remind a
European of the sketches in which a Japanese artist will
represent a flight of cranes passing before the moon, or a
bamboo swaying in the wind, with but half-a-dozen bold
touches of the pencil.

The chief negative feature of Japanese poetry is the
absence of rhyme and of quantity. Long vowels, diph-
thongs, and syllables ending in n or pi do indeed count
double ; but that is because they were originally pro-


nounced separately, and are still figured separately in the
Kana writing.

^ 466. Here is a miniature ode, — what is called a hokku, —
by the poetess Chiyo, who flourished in the last centur}^ : —

(5) Asagao ni

(7) Tsurube torareiCj.

(5) Morai-mizu !

lit. ‘ ‘ Having had my well-bucket taken away by the con-
volvuli, — ^gift- water ! ” The meaning is this : — Chiyo,
having gone to her well one morning to draw water,
found that some tendrils of the convolvulus had twined
themselves around the rope. As a poetess and a woman
of taste, she could not bring herself to disturb the dainty
blossoms. So, leaving her own well to the convolvuli,
she went and begged water of a neighbour, — a pretty little
vignette, surely, and expressed in five words. Whether
the circumstance actually occurred or not, we cannot
undertake to say ; for Japanese poets are as much given
to the invention of apocryphal esthetic incidents, as our
own rhymesters of an ^earlier generation were to the inven-
tion of non-existent Chloes and Amelias.

^467. Here is a hokku by the most famous of all hokku-
writers, Basho, a poet of the latter part of the seventeenth
century. It is entitled Getsu-zen no Hoioiogisu, or *’The
Cuckoo in Front of the Moon,” and is as follows : —

(5) Hito-koe wa^

(7) Tsuki ga natla ka ?

(5) Hoiologisul

lit. ‘ * As for the single note, did the moon sing ? — Cuckoo ! ”
The poet means that, startled by the note of the cuckoo,


he looked up in the direction whence it came, — to see,
however, no cuckoo, but the brightly shining moon.
Could it then be the moon that was the songstress ? No,
it must be the cuckoo after all.

T 468. Japanese poets are fond of jokes, puns, and
whimsical notions. The already-mentioned Basho was
riding along a country lane one day, when his groom,
who afterwards rose to be the well-known poet Kikaku,
espied a red dragon-fly, and cried out in verse

(5) Aka-iombo —

(7) Hdne wo totiara^

(5) Tb-garashi!

i.e., “Pluck off the wings of a red dragon-fly, and you
have a cayenne pepper-pod.” But Basho reproved him
for so cruel a fancy, and corrected the verse thus ;

(5) To-garashi —

(7) Hane wo isUkeiara,

(5) Aka-tombo /

i. e., ”Add wings to a cayenne pepper-pod, “and you have
a red dragon-fly.”

Tf 469. The following y^<?>^fl, or *’ comic poem,” of thirty-one
syllables, contains a pun on the words go-bu go-bu^ ”five
parts and five parts,” i.e., “half and half,” and gobu-gobu,
an onomatope for the gurgling sound made by a* liquid in
issuing from a bottle : —

(5) Kimimo nomiy

(7) Boku mo nomu kara^

(5) Wari-ai mo

(7) Go’bu gO’bu io isugi-

(7) Dasu iarii no sake !


This may mean either : ‘* Oh ! the liquor from the cask,
poured out in equal halves, because, as you are drinking
and I. too am drinking, proportion must be observed,” or
*’0h! the liquor from the cask poured out gurgle-gurgle,
because, etc.”

•f 470. The following contains no pun, but has a delicate
touch of satire : —

(5) Hototogisu

(7) yiyu jizai ni

(5) Kiku salo wa, —

(7) Saka-ya ni san-ri,

(7) Tofu-ya ni ni-ri i
i.e., *’ The village where one may list undisturbedly to the

cuckoo’s song is three leagues from the grog-shop,

and two from the bean-curd shop ! ” — Notice in passing
that this stanza of thirty-one syllables is the vehicle of
the greater portion of the Classical poetry of Japan.

^471. The dodoiisu generally consists of three lines of
seven syllables and one of five. Take, for instance,
(7) Htio wa sUki’Zuki. i So many men, so many tastes.
(7) Soshiru wa yaho yo I VYo blame is clownish. He who
(7) Horeie iru ucha,^ lis in love is blind, though
(5) Aki-mekura. (possessed of eyes.

(?) Si^’^-^^W </., J At first W a joke, in the
(7 Ima ja iagai no >id-time a duty but now it is
(X rt:7^„ *» ::4^.. true love o» both sides. ^

(5) 7^^^^ to jiisu,

(7) Konna kokoro’ni

(7) Sinta no mo omae,

(7) Ima-sara akite wa,
(5) Kawaiso.


You it is who have put my
heart in this state. For you
to weary of me now is cruel. ^

I. For uchi wa. Such contracted forms in a are common in the
popular poetry. In the next poem we find nakagora for nakagoro tva.


Even a board stuck up and
inscribed with the words ‘ * It is
strictly prohibited to pluck these
blossoms ” is useless as ag^ainst
,the wind, which cannot read.

T 472. Occasionally the dodoitsu has five lines, thus : —

(5) ^^ Kono hatui wo

(7) Kiifiiku oru-na* !” fo

(7) lu iaie’/uda mo^

(7) Vomenu kaze ni wa

(5) Zchi mo nashi,^

T ^11′ ^^ ^”^ ^^^ “P ^y * longer poem of a form called
Sendai-hushiy which, though containing two or three
Book Language forms, is otherwise easy. It is put into
the mouth of one who was exiled to a small island beyond
the stormy reach of sea called the Genkai-nada, to the
north-west of Kvushu : —

I care not for myself, who am
sent across the Genkai Sea
over which even the birds do

(7) Tori mo kosanai

(7) Genkai-nada 7V0

(8) Vara rem kono miiva*

(5) liowanedo, — ^ t» ^ *u • -r j

/i AS • ^j,^ • h’t “, komaru.

can, dekirti : see also pp. 201-3.

bottle, iokkuri.

canal, hori.

bottom, sJiita




ijd, from thence upwards, that and

want to go; iki-i^doktt^ to reach,

upwards (the Japanese generally

to be effectual; ittc skhfuin, to go

recktining inclasivdy).


ika P an interrogative word foond

ikura P how much ? ikttra ka, iku*

in f/:.r^f, the compoonds f^<z-

ra mo, ihttrij dc iiu pp. 52, II3 ;

// •’ * ‘, etc. : lia na koio / what

ikttra mo ;/<//, there are hardly any.

.-ort ^f? what?

iktlsa, war: iktisa 7iv> j//n/, to

ika^a ? how ?

make war.

ikahodo P how mach ?

ikuCtsu) P how many ? — ikutsu

ikan? or ikaniP how?

ftu i!::(lsit do mo, see p. 52.

ikanimo, yes, certainly, p. 235.

ikari, an anchor.

now ; iwii mottc, see p. 73 ; ima-

ikasu, to vivify, to free.

Sara, now again ; ima m iiatte.

iken, opinion : iken zoo nobcru, to

by this time.

s^i c ( ‘nes opinion.

ikenai (ncg. potential of iku, to

imashimeru (2), to reprove, to

go), *’ is no go,” won’t do.

warn (conf. p. 213).

iki, the act of going, the way

imi, signification, meaning.


imo, a potato.

iki-gake, while going, on the

imOto, a younger sister.

way to.

ina! nay! inii viu yes or no: arn

iki-nari, abruptly.

ka ifui ya or ya ina ya, whether

ikioi, strength, force.

there is or not.

ikiru (3), to live: ikite im, to be

inabikarif lightning.


inai, within the limits of; towards

ikka P what day ? such and such

the interior.

a day.

inaka, the country (as opposed to

ik-kon, a glass (of wine).

the town).

iku? how many? iku bun ka,

ine, rice (growing).

rather, more or less; iku»hon?

Indo, India.

iku-mai ? ikU’tUn ? iku-iabi ?

inkyOy see >. 352, note ii.

etc., see p. 113.

inochi, life.

iku (irrcg.), to go; see pp. 171,251-

inoriy prayer: iuori wo surUf to

iki-au, to chance to meet; iki-


chigau, to cross and miss one

inoru, to pray.

another; iki-kaerUy to go and

insbi, a stamp, especially a post-

conu’ back again ; ikUagaru^ to



[407 ]



inu, a dog.

isogri, a hurry. .

ip-pai, one cupful, full : ip-pai

isogu, to make haste.

fw, full ; ippiU ni suru^ to fill.

issakujitsu, the day Ijefore

ippan (no), general, universal.


ira, see p. 193.

is-shin, one person: jibtm is-

irai, henceforth, Since, after.

sUn, oneself only.

iraserareru (2), see pp. 171,

issho, a whole life-time.


issho ni, together.

irasshai or iraserare, imper-

is-shU) one kind, a sort.

ative of irasskarUt see pp. 171,

is-so, a pair (see p. 114).


isn, a chair.

irassharu (irreg.), see pp. 171,

itadaku, to receive ; see pp. 203,

251 ; 223.


ireba, an artificial tooth.

itai, painful, hurting.

ireru (2), to put in, to insert ; to

itameru (2), to hurt (trans.).

make (tea); conf. pp. 228 — 9.

it ami, pain.

iri-kunda, complicated.

itamu, to hurt (intrans.).

iri-mame, parched peas.

itaru, to reach: tti itartt made.

iri-umi, a gulf, a bay.

down to; tti itatte, at.

iriyo (na), needed, necessary.

itasu, to do ; conf. p. 195.

iro, colour,: iro-iro , an impost.
zeikwan, a custom-house,
zen, (generaly with honorific 0),

a kind of tray ; see p. 248.
zen, before (in compounds), as

sH’go-nen-zeft, four or five years

zen, virtue.

zen-aku, good J *” evil,
zeni, coin, coppers.
zennin, a virtuous person.
zenry5 (na), virtuous, good,
zentai, properly the whole body ;

more often usually, generally,
zentorumen, a corruption of the

word ” gentleman.”


[557 ]



zetcho, the summit of a mountain,
zo, Tin interjection : see pp. 239

and 55.
zoliei-kyoku, a mint.
zokin, a duster,
zoku, commonplace, vulgarity :

zoku na^ vulgar.
zoku, a brigand, a rebel.
zokug^o, a colloquial word, the

spoken dialect.
zombun, a sentiment : zornbun ni

suru, to do as one likes (with a

zonji, knowledge ; used in such

phrases as go zonji desu ka ? do

you know ? zonfi-nagara, I must

own that…
zosji-yori, an opinion,
zonjiru (3), to know,
zori, a kind of straw sandals

worn indoors.

zosa, difficulty: always with a

negative, as zosa mo nat there is

no difficulty.
zotto sum, to start with surprise;

abp to be natural or pleasant.
ZU, termination of the negative

gerund, seep. 169.
zubon, trowsers.
zuibun, a good deal, pretty

(adverb), very,
zure, see tsurg.
zuru, a verbal termin., see p.

zutsu, (one, etc.) at a time, apiece,

each, as mitsu-zutsu, three at a

zutsu, a headache : zutsU ga suru^

to have a headache,
zutto, straight, quite, a great

deal. 4^^/,^^ <1.^..





(When several references are given, the most important reference is placed first.

Subjects having only Japanese names, such as the Kana^ the Nig»ri^ and the

various Postposition?, are not inserted here. They must be looked

up in the Japanese-English Vocabulary, p. 474 et seg.)




(form in shi), 121

Accusative, 91, 2or, 224. |



Constructions (preference


(gerund of), 128, 181.

for), 205, 216, 266, 278 ; 57, 58.


(in beki)t 121, 122; 41.

Adjectives, 120 ; 44, 78, 225, 260,


(in ««•), 129, 130, 139,


168, 170, 171.


(adverbial form), 123 ;

(in rashii 133.

120, 124, 126, 129.


(in sUi 128, 134.


(attributive form), 117,


(in iai 165, 183; 133,

121, 126, 138, 140.



(comparison of), 144;


(indefinite form), see


adverbial form.

(compound), 131.


(inflections), 120, 128.


(conclusive form), 121,

(irregular), 126.

122, 126.


(negative), 129, 130, 168,


(derivative), 131.



(desiderative), 165, 183 ;


(of probabmty), 137,

133, 134, 204.

165, 183.


(form in «), 120, 123,

(paradigms of), 126, 128,

124, 126.

129, 130.


(form in kt), 121, 179.


(predicative form), 120,


(form in ku 122 ; 91,

121, 126, 138, 140.

123, 126, 138,231.

, ,

(primary inflections),


(form In kitba)^ 91.

120, 126, 127.


(form in or m), 120,


(quasi-), 135-

126, 128,222.


(reduplicated), 134.



Adjectives (secondary inflections),
,, (stems), 125 ; 124, 126,

127. 134, 226.
„ (tense and mood in),

„ (verbs formed from), 134.
Adverbial Phrases, 236 ; 84, 220,

230. 233.
Adverbs, 231, 52; 45, 75, 82, 99,

Adversative Constructions, 67, 83,

88, 93.
Affirmation, 234 ; 85.
Agglutination, 5, 29, 129, 134, 149—

151, 153, 161, 165^170, 193, 210,

222, 226.
Aino Language, 5.
Altaic languages, 5.
** Although ” (how rendered), 243.
Ambiguous Constructions, 58, 60,

” And ” (how rendered), 242.
Animals (how addressed), 240.

„ (names of young), 32, 33.
Antithesis, 85, 91.
Aphseresis, 192.
Apposition, 77.
Article, 11.

** As ‘* (how rendered). 70, 184, 243.
Aston (Mr. W. G.), Fref,, 66, 153,

167, 168.
Attraction, 5.
Attributive Constructions, 56, 57,

76, 99, 120, 121, 132, 138, 140,

I4», 275.
Augmentatives, 32, 143.

Auxiliary Numerals, 107, 113, 114,

„ (verbs), see Verbs.
B (letter), 21, 25, 162, 163.
Baby Language, 240.
Bad Language, 239.
Bases of Verbs, 151 ; 149—152, 154

—160, 161, 165, 167.
” Because ” (how rendered), 70.
” Become ” (how rendered), 136,

185, 204.
Book Language, see Written Lan-
Brinkley’s Dictionary, 12, 93.
” But ” (how rendered), 186, 243.
” Can ” (how rendered), 202, 206,

” Cannot ” (how rendered), 202—3.
Causatives, 212.
Certain Past, 166, 175; 57-

„ (of negative), 169, 204.

Certain Present or Future, 165,
172 ; 152, 154—160; also 57, 75,
132, 153, 222, 230.
Certain Present or Future (of nega-
tive), 169, 176, 195.
Ch (letter), 21, 25, 163, 164.
Changes in the Language, 6, 22, 23,
24, 25, 35, 101, 103, 117, 118, 121,
122, 124, 135, 151, 161,163— 5,
172, 180, 184, 231, 260.
Chinese (characters), 7, 225, 245.
„ (influence), 6—9, 34, 36,

61, loi, 170, 242, 271.
„ (pronunciation of), 7.
„ (terseness), 8, 33.
„ (words), 6-8, 21, 22,03,



33, 34, 35. 37, 54, 103—

Conjugations (interchanged), 164,

106,111, 112, 113, 117,


142, 170, 225, 226, 246,

„ (of adjectives), 128



Classical Japanese, see Written Lan-

„ (of verbs), 152—160.


(second), 156, 152,

Classifiers, 107.

153; also 132, 198,

Comparison, 144; 90, 121.

199, 206, 207, 2X2,

Compound (adjectives), 131.

213, 214, 228, 229.

„ (noons), 31.

(third), 157, 152, 153;

(tenses), 155, 191.

also 132, 164, 198,


207, 212, 228, 229.

Compounds, 31, 131, 217 ; also 17,

Conjunctions, 242^ 41, 42, 99, 230.

21, 22, 44, lOI, I02,

Consonants, 16, 25.

108, 125, 137, 143.

(double), 18.

(Chinese), 21, 22, 33,

„ (peculiarities of certain),

34, 35. 37.

25. 164.

(co-ordinated), 33, 34,

Construction, 260 ; 34, 35.


„ (synthetic tendency

(hybrid), 35, 106.

of), 280—2.

„ (in word-building), 35.

Continuative Tenses (in te iru, etc.).

Concessive (idioms), 187.

155 ; 141.

(mood), 166, 167, 186,

Contractions, 26,^104, 155.


Correlation of Clauses, 178—181,

„ (mood negative), 169.

261, 264 — 6 ; also 123, 196.

Conclusive Forms, 121, 122, 132.

“Could” (how rendered), 186.

Conditional Base, 152, 167, also

Court Language, 241.

154—160, 153, 166.

D (letter), 21, 25, 163.

„ (base negative), 169.

Days of Month (how counted), 1 1 7.

(mood), 166, 167, 184;

Dependent Clauses (how placed),

123, 175.


„ (negative), 169.

Desiderative Adjective, 165, 183 ;

Conjugations, 152—160; 128.

133. 134, 204.

(first), 154, 161— 5,

Dialects, 8.

152; also 132, 164,

Dictionaries, 12, 18, 153, 243.

198, 206, 210, 212,

Diminutives, 32, 143.

214, 226, 228, 229.

Diphthongs, 15.



Dutch Inflaenoe, 26.

Gerand (of adjectives), 128, 181.

“Either… or” (how rendered), 69,

„ (negative), 169. 179.


“Get*’ (how rendered), 198— aoo.

EUsion. 14, 104, 154. 15s. 185. 194.

II (letter), 16, 25.

EUipsis, 268, 186 ; also 68, 83, 87,

« Had better ” (how icndcredy, 177.


Hepburn (Dr. J. C), 12, 93.

Emphasis, 18, 19, 43. 8$. 86, 87. 88,

Hoffmann’s Japanese Grammar,

90, 91, 97, 118, 122. 169,19s,


237–9, 268.

Honorifics, 244; 11. 37, 47, i43,

Emphatic Particles, 73, 79, 136.

165, 189, 275, 276.

English Inflaence, 5, 6, 22, 26, 60.

(meaningless), 245, 248.

Enumeration, 75, 80, 81, loi, 102,

„ (used objectively), 247.

• 224.

Hours (counting of), 118.

Epenthetic Letters, 18, 24, 106, ^99.

Humble Phraseology, 46, 249—257.

Equals (how addressed), 244—257.

Hyphens, 35, 106.

Errors (common), 11,50, 125, 142.

Hypothetical Mood, 184; 166.

Euphony, 23, 26, 1 05, 129, 152.

“If” (how rendered). 84, 91,

Europeanisms, 5, 26, 280.


Exclamatory Particles, 85, 87, 93,

Illative Tenses, 193.

237. 239.

Imperative Mood, 167, 189, 252—4,

Expletives, 237—240.

277; also 129, 151,

F (letter), 16, 25, 164—5.


Feminine, 27, 28.

(honorific), 252—4.

Frequentative Form, 167, 188; 128,

(negative), 168.


Impersonality, 50.

(of negative), 169.

Impossibility (how expressed), 202

Future Tense, 165, 168, 172, 190.


„ (compound), I91.

Improbable Past, 169.

G (letter), 16, 21, 162—3.

„ (Present or Future),

Gender, 27, 28, 30, 32, 121.

168; 81.

Genitive, 66, 76, 260.

” In order to ” (how rendered), 75.

Gerund, 165, 178, 180, 265 ; also 60,

Indefinite Form, 165, 178, 264—6;

70, 100, 147, 190, 191,

also 31, 43, 60, 75. 88, 93. 1 10, 122,

192, 193, 194, 196,203,

132. 137, 150. 152, 153. 154—160,

214. 230, 233, 261, 269.


„ (emphasised), 166, 182 ;

Indicative Mood, 154-160, 172;


abo 57.



Infinitive Mood, 178 ; 153, 179.
Inflections (of adjectives), 120.

(of verbs), 149.
Integration of Sentences, 280 — 2,
Interjections, 236 ; 87, 92, 234.
Interrogation, 278; 51, 52, 68, 87,

93. “3.
„ (negative), 235.

Inversion, 270; 118.
Irregular Verbs, 158-160, etc (see

Isolating Particle, 85.
” It would seem that ‘ – (how render-
ed), 183.
J (letter), 21, 25, 163.
Jesuit Grammars, 164.
**Just as ” (how rendered), 42,
K (lettei*), 21, 162.
Korean Language, 5, 169.
Kyoto Dialect, 8, 125, 163, 164, 223,

“Let ” (how rendered), 213, 215.
Letter-changes, 20, I04, 161— 5,

168, 171.
” Let us ” (how rendered), 189,
Literature, 6, 9, 10, 448.
Long Sentences, 280 ; 3, 269.
Luchuan Language, JPr^f,, 5, 36,

M (letter), 24, 162—3.
Masculine, 27, 28.
“May” (how rendered), 69, 174,

188, 207.
Memorising (necessity for), 4, 5.
“Might” (how rendered), 69.
Military Words of Command, 189,


Months (names of the), 116, 117,
Mood (in adjectives), 128, 130, 178.

„ (in verbs), JS4— 160, 165,
172, 178,
Mr., Mrs., Miss, 258 — 9.
« Must ” (how rendered), 174—5 »

122, 132, 183.
“Must not” (how rendered), 183.
N (letter), 17, 18, 23, 24, 25, 162^

168, 169.
Names (family), 36, 259.

„ (men’s), 36, 259.

„ (of dogs), 125.

„ (of places), 36, 40, 41, 126.

„ (of shops)t 40.

„ (of trees), 40,

„ (personal), 36. 256, 259.

„ (women’s), 259.
« Need not ” (how rendered), 188.
Negative (syntax of), 271—4.

„ (adjective Ma), 129, 130,
168, 171.

„ (base), 152, 154—160, 167;
also 153, 198, 212.

„ (conjugations), 129, 130,

15s— i60i
„ (question how answered),

„ (tenses how formed), 167

—170; 153.
„ (voice), 153, 155—160,
168, 179.219,272.
” Neither. . .nor” (how rendered), 72.
Ng (sound of), 16.
Nominative, 66, 89 ; 76, 86, 91, 201.
Nouns, 27 ; also 97, loi, 260, 269.
„ (abstract), 37, 38, 136.



Nouns (collective), 27.

„ (compoand), 31, 137.

„ (How yerbiUsed), 2tt$.

„ (humble). 256.

„ (in ^’ and j^), 40.

.. (in w»), 38.

„ (in sa), 37, 38, m-

» (in ya), 40.

„ (plain and honorific), 256

„ (used as adjectives), 44, 135

—140, 142.
„ (used as adverbs), 45, 231

„ (used as postpositions), 97.
„ (verbal), 43 ; 31.
Number, 27, 29, 30, 32, 121, 149.
Numerals, loi.

„ (auxiliary), 107.

„ (cardinal), loi, 115, 116.

(Chinese), 103—7; in,
112, 113, 115, 116.
„ (fractional), 118; 115.

„ (multiplicative), 118.

„ (ordinal), 115, 116.

Object (of verb), 260, 268.
“One” or “ones’* (how rendered),

78. 96. I3S» M4-
Onomatopes, 236 ; 82, 240.
„ Or ” (how rendered), 69, 93, 224.
„ Ought” (how rendered), 41, 57,

P (let««r), 21, 22, 23, 25, 236.
” Pair *’ (various words for), 114.
Paradigms, ^2, 1 26, 1 28 — 1 30, 1 54—

160, 162, 229.
Participle-, 165.

Particles, see Postpositions.

Farts of Speech, 10, 230, 231^

Passive, 198, etc ; see Verhs.
Past Participle, 165.
„ (lenses), 166, 175, 184, 186 ;
also 141.
Person, 46, 149, 244—6, 249.
Personification, 279.
Phonetic Decay, 22, 151, 161, 166,

168, 202, 233.
Place-names, 36, 143.
Pleonastic Constructions, 1278.
Plural, 27, 29, 30, 48, 49-
Politeness (influence on grammarX

244 ; 46—7, 160.
Portuguese Influence, 236.
Positive Voice, 153, 154, 156 — 160.
Possessive, 76.

Postpositions, 62 ; 10, 27, 49, 230^
232, 260, 269, 27P.
. „ (combined), 94; 76, 77;

Pot«itial yerbs, see Verbs.
Predicative Constructions, 66, 77,
89, 90, 91, 121, 122, 138, 140, 141,
142, 143,266,274.
Prefixes, ay, 30, 37, 170.
Present Tense, see Certain Present.
Probable Past, 166, 175.
„ (of negative), 169.
„ present or future, 168.
• „ „ (of negative), »68.

Pronouns, 46, 257.

.„ (demonstrative), 51, 82.
„ (indefinite), 51, 52, 55,

„ ( interrogative), 5 1 .



Pronouns (personal), 46, 245, 257,
(possessive), 49.
„ (reaective), 51.

(relative), 56.
„ (substantive and adjec-
tive forms), 53.
Pronunciation, 12; 7.
Prosody, 448.

” Provided ” (Ijow rendered), 242.
Quantity (vowel), 12—13, 448.
Quasi-adjectives, 135.

„ (inj^/a),i42;i4i.

„ (in so na)y 137.

Quasi-postpositions, 97.
Question and Answer, 235.
Quotation, 275.
R (letter), 17, 152, 162, 163.
Reduplication of Consonants, 18,

23, 24-
(of stems), 134.
„ (of words), 29, 230,

232, 240.
Reflective (pronouns), 51.

„ (verbs), 211.
Relation'(ideas of), 27, 62, 77.
Relation to Other Languages, 5.
Relationship (degrees of), 28,

Relative Constructions, 56.
Rodriguez’ Japanese Grammar, 150.
Romanisation, 12.
Roots of Verbs, 149— 151, 209, 210.
S (letter), 17, 21, 25, 162, 164.
Satow and Ishibashi’s English-
Japanese Dictionary, 153, 243.
Satow (Sir Ernest), 22, 35.

” Self** (how rendered), 51, 21.1.
Self-depreciatory Terms, 46, 244,

250—1, 255—7.
Semi-colloquial, 124, 125.
Sentence (structure oO, 260.
Servants (how addressed), 47,

Sh (letter), 25 ; 21, 162, 164.
“Should” (how rendered), 41, 132,

177. 186.
Silent Vowels, 14.
” Since ” (how rendered), 70, 94.
Singular, 27, 29, 49.
•* Sir” (no equivalent for), 258.
Slang, 8.

«*So” (how rendered), 148,
Spanish Influence, 26, 236.
Special Phraseology, 240 — 2.
Stems (of adjectives), 124—7, ’34*

„ (of verbsX 149—152, 190, 210,
214, 228.

„ (reduplicated), 134.
” Still more ” (how rendered), 146.
Subject (of sentence), 261, 266;

Suffixes, 5, 10, 29, 30, 38,48, 120—

2, 133, i34» 149. 150. I53» 161,

165— i7o> 190, 193,210,219,222,

225, 226, 261.
Superiors (how addressed), 244—

Superlatives, 145, 146.
Supposition (how expressed), 184 —

Surds and Sonants, 2a
Surnames, 36, 259.



Syntax, 260.

Verbs (compound), 217.

Synthesis of Contradictories, 34.


(conclusive form), 132.

T (letter), 25, 162, 163, 164.


(final omitted), 268.

Tense (anomalous use of), 176.


(formed from adjectives), 134,

„ (compound continuative).


»55» 191; MI.


(honorific), 249—254; 160,

„ (illative), 193.

171, 189.

„ (in adjectives), 128, 130, 177,

(humble), 251; 249, 250.



(in aru 190, 210.

„ (in verbs), 154—160, 165,

(in em), 190, 210.

172; also 57, 149,178,191.


(in^r«), 134.

„ (negative),i67— 170, 191, 195.


{injiru 226.

“Than” (how rendered), 94, 145.


(in suru), 225.

“That” (conjunction), 82.


(in iagaru), 134.

“There is,” etc. (how rendered),


(inchoative), 204, 218.

221, 222; 98.


(inflections of), 149 — 152.

“They say that” (how rendered).


(intransitive), 205, 208; 191,

58, 183.


“Though” (how rendered), 186.


(irregular), 158—160, 170 ;

Tities, 258.

also 133, 198, 212.

Tokyo Dialect, 8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,

(liable to be confounded).

20, 21, 23, 128, 163, 164, i68, 223.


Tones, 19.


(may take postpositions).

“Too” (how rendered), 148.


Transitive and Intransitive Pairs of


(nature of Japanese), 149.

Verbs, 208, 228.


(passive), 198, 203—5, 278 ;

Transliteration, 12, 225.

also 57, 58, 75, 133, 134,

Ts (letter), 25; 21, 164.

190, 191, 207, 208, 213,

Unfinished Sentences, 268 ; 82, 83,

216, 219, 227, 266.

237, 253.


(periphrasis with), 191 — 7.

Verbalisation of Nouns, 225.


(plain and honorific), 249,

Verbs, 149 ; 260, 261.


„ (auxiliary), 190 ; 155, 223.


(potential), 201, 207, 219,

„ (bases oQ, 151; 149—152,


154—160, 161, 165. 167.

(prepositional), how rendered,

„ (cannot be omitted), 71.


„ (causative), 212; 75, 134, 219.




Verbs (stems of), 149 — 152, 190.

83, 107, 122, 124, 161.


(substantive), see Verb «* to

W (letter), 17, 25, 164-5,


Western Peculiarities, 15, 17, 21,


(“to Be”), 221; also 62—5,

163, 168.

71, 98, 120, 124, 126, 128,

“When” (how rendered), 41, 42,

129. 136, 138, 190, 191,



” Whether ‘* (how rendered), 69.


(“to Do”), 224; 195.

“While” (how rendered), 41, 42,

(” to Have “), 221; 203, 216.



(transitive), 206, 208, 214,

“Without” (how rendered), 129,

215, 227, 279.



(used as adjectives), 135, 140,

Women (words peculiar to), 47,



(used as nouns), 31, 43, 149.

Women’s names, 259.


(used as other parts of

“Wonder” (how rendered), 175.

speech), 230.

Word-boilding, 35.

(with so suffixed), 137, 183.

” Would ” (how rendered), 186.


(with stems in j), 210, 214.

Writing (system of), 9,

« Very ” (how rendered), 147, 148.

Written Language^ 9, 10; also 46,

Vowels, 12, 25.

51,52,57,60,73,76,91.93, 112,


(crasis of), 15, 124.

118, 121, 122, 124, 132, 135, 136,


(harmony of), 5.

161, 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 178,


(long and short), 13, 168.

180, 184, 185, 202, 203, 212, 224,


(quiescent), 14. 18, 19.

226, 239. 241, 257.


(stems), 124, 162, 163, 164.

Y (letter), 17,25,


(strengthening of), 24,

Year-names, 116.


“Yes” and “no,” 234.

Vulgarisms, 8, 15, 18, 19, 46, 48, 64,

Z (letter), 18, 21, 25.




Page 104, line 10, and Vocab. s. v. — Some modern
authorities take (7i^« in the sense of ‘*one hundred
millions,” and chd in the sense of ** one oku of oku^*
i.e. apparently io,ooo,ooo,ocx),ocx),cxx).

Page 142, line 18. — For smnoriy read tsumori.

Page 188, line ?• — For Iwanakue read Iwanakute,

Page 194, line 7.— For ” 1 289,” read ” 1 298.”

Page 198, bottom. Serareru is often contracted to

Page 202, fourth example.— For gozaimasu, read

Page 242, line 18.— For shltey read shtte.

Page 326, line 6 from end. — For sugy read sugi.

Page 330, line 6 from end. — For tatte, read tatete. In
last line of ditto, the sense would be still clearer
were the word sakan inserted after naka-naka.

Page 332, line 3. — For attate, read atatte.

Page 384, line 3 from bottom.— For Gondaiyu, read



Page 461, s. v. “L^^— For wata^shi, read watakushi.

Ditto, s. V. ” June,” for r^>6«-^a/^« read roku-gwatsu.

Page 474. — The first word of the Vocabulary should

be, not ^, but d.

On ditto, for ai-nikui read ai-niku.
Page 540, S. v. Sugiru. — Correct segiru to sugiru.

To the Japanese — English Vocabulary (pp. 474
et seg,) add the following : —

asai, shallow.
be086, a villa.

hXto-tsubu-dane, an only child.
hon, sometimes eqaiv. to Aonto,

true : Aott no, true, quite, mere.
kimaru, to be fixed,
kitte, a ticket, a stamp.
kizukai, anxiety.
k6be, the head.

kocli6, a mayor.
kokoro-zashi, intention.
koxni-agreru (2), to retch, also to

have a sadden impulse, e. g. of

ku, a stanza of poetry,
mirai, the future.
nazo, or nanzo, same as ttado.


Things Japanese, i Vol., 3rd Edit.

The Classical Poetry of the Japanese y i Vol.

A Romanized Japanese Reader (Modern Written
Style), 3 Vols., viz. Vol. I, Japanese Text ; Vol. II,
English Translation ; Vol. Ill, Notes.

Essay in Aid of a Grammar and Dictionary of the
Luchuan Language, (Published as Supplement to
Vol. XXIII of the ‘* Transactions of the Asiatic Society
of Japan.”)

The Language^ Mythology y and Geographical No-
menclature of Japan, Viezued in the Light of Aino
Studies, I Vol. (Published as a Memoir of the Litera-
ture College of the Imperial University of Japan.)

A Translation of the ” Kojiki,” or ^^ Records of
Ancient Matters,^’ with Introduction and Commentary^
I Vol. (Published as Supplement to Vol. X of the
“Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan.’*)


” Ei Bunten” (an elementary English Grammar),
I Vol, 5th Edit.

** Nihon Shdbunten ” (an elementary Japanese Gram-
mar), I Vol.

In Collaboration with W. B. Hasoiii Esq.

Murray’s Handbook for Japan, i Vol., 4th Edit.

Printed by tbb Shuteisha, TSkyCsi

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